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Tikva is composed of 43 natural vitamins, minerals, amino acids and strong antioxidants that have been shown to help lower blood pressure, cholesterol, stress levels, erectile dysfunction issues, arthritis and much more. Tikva was formulated to put all of these ingredients into a once-a-day pleasant tasting drink, so that you do not have to take handfuls of pills.

Below you will find each ingredient that is in Tikva and how much we used. We do not hide behind proprietary blends. Beside each ingredient is a picture of just one of the many dietary sources from which these ingredients may be derived.

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Arginine - 6000 mg

Lowers High Blood Pressure
Lowers High Cholesterol
Increase Nitric Oxide
Relieves Angina
Boosts Immunity
Aids in Erectile Dysfunction

L - Arginine (Ahr'juh-neen)

What Is It?

L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that has numerous functions in the body. It helps dispose of ammonia, is used to make compounds in the body such as nitric oxide, creatine, L-glutamate, L-proline, and can be converted to glucose and glycogen if needed. To Continue Reading, Use The Scroll Bar Above


Health Benefits

Reducing high blood pressure

Arginine-derived nitric oxide created by the endothelial cells lining your arteries is now known to be the principal blood pressure regulator of the body.

Once produced and released by the endothelium, nitric oxide causes the arterial smooth muscles making up the vessel walls to relax, enlarging the interior diameter of the artery, and ultimately letting more blood flow through.

A study which was first presented in November 1997 at the American Heart Association's 70th Scientific session and later published in Circulation, looked at patients ranging in age between thirty and seventy and suffering mild to moderate hypertension (ie., blood pressure greater than 160/90 mm Hg). The researchers found that an oral arginine supplement of 2,000 milligrams per day worked to lower their blood pressure significantly.

One study that appeared in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology in 1998 looked at fourteen patients in Italy newly diagnosed with borderline high blood pressure. The researchers found that it took only two grams a day of L-arginine administered orally for a week to trigger nearly twenty point drops in systolic blood pressure - a fact they credited to l-arginine's ability to improve endothelial function.

-Robert Fried, Ph.D., and Woodson C. Merrell, M.D., The Arginine Solution (Warner Books, 1999)

Lowering cholesterol

Arginine also appears to benefit individuals with high cholesterol. In 1997, Stanford researchers showed that in people with elevated cholesterol, arginine reduced the tendency of blood platelets to clump, potentially lessening the risk of heart attacks and strokes. An earlier study at Sinai Hospital in Baltimore found that two weeks of arginine therapy reduced total and LDL ("bad") cholesterol but had no effect on HDL ("good") cholesterol in healthy elderly volunteers.


Relieving angina

A 1998 Mayo Clinic study found that patients with early heart disease who took arginine supplements for six months had better blood flow to the heart and less angina compared with a placebo group. And Polish scientists showed that arginine increased the exercise capacity of patients with angina who had had a heart attack."

-Robert Fried, Ph.D., and Woodson C. Merrell, M.D., The Arginine Solution (Warner Books, 1999)

Boost Immunity

"Preliminary evidence suggests that the supplement (arginine) may also boost immunity, reverse impotence, and forestall many of the complications of diabetes. For example, it is known that the immune system can kill infectious microbes, from Salmonella to Chlamydia, by emitting a puff of nitric oxide.

Several studies have now shown that arginine supplements can activate the immune system and spur wound healing after surgery or trauma.


Aid in Erectile Dysfunction

The amino acid arginine promotes natural nitric oxide production in the body. By enhancing nitric oxide and subsequent cyclic GMP synthesis, arginine enlarges blood vessels in the corpus cavernosum that can lead to enhanced sensation and penile erection. Arginine is given to prize race horses at stud to improve the frequency of their sexual encounters, and to improve the quality of their sperm.

Like the new prescription potency drug Viagra, arginine works to boost cyclic GMP levels. Arginine causes the production of nitric oxide that leads to increased levels of cyclic GMP. The longer that cyclic GMP levels are maintained, the better the chance of achieving and maintaining an erection. (One benefit of arginine supplementation is that it is much less costly than Viagra.)

The dose of arginine needed to enhance sexual function has been estimated to be between 6 and 12 grams a day.

-Life Extension Foundation


Finally, arginine blood levels are often reduced in diabetes, and some evidence suggests that arginine can slow the progression of atherosclerosis in those with the disease. It should not, however, be taken by people with diabetic retinopathy."



“In the field of medicine and health it is one of the revolutions of our time: the discovery that the amino acid L-arginine may be a ‘magic bullet’ for the cardiovascular system. A virtual arterial cleanser, ARGININE helps eliminate blockage and maintains blood flow.

”“Oral ARGININE taken regularly has time and time again proven its ability to lower cholesterol, prevent LDL oxidation by free radicals, restore endothelial function, normalize blood-vessel dilation, reduce platelet stickiness, and generally tune up your cardiovascular system.”

-Woodson Merrell, M.D., Columbia University Medical School
Dr. Robert Fried, PhD., Senior Professor of Biopsychology at Hunter College, Columbia Univ. NY

L-ARGININE is a safe, effective, and inexpensive means of self-care that boosts immunity, sexual potency, and general well-being."

-Harold Bloomfield, M.D.

• 7 grams of L-arginine per day improved blood flow in men, aged 55 to 77, with elevated serum cholesterol and early coronary artery disease.


• L-arginine supplementation reduced pathological increases in the thickness of plaque lined vessel walls in people with elevated cholesterol and artherosclerosis.


• Arginine lowered plasma cholesterol levels in patients with advanced hypertension.

-New England Journal of Medicine

• Arginine infusion has the same effect in cardiovascular patients as cholesterol-lowering drugs. -The Lancet • 7 grams of L-arginine improved blood-vessel relaxation in young men with elevated serum cholesterol and coronary artery disease (in as few as 3 days).


In the best selling book “The Cardiovascular Cure,” the author John Cooke, Ph.D. states that arginine derived nitric oxide (ADNO):

Keeps blood vessels pliable and elastic

Keeps blood flowing smoothly

Keeps platelets calm and prevents them from sticking to the vessel wall

Keeps white blood cells calm and prevents them from sticking to the vessel wall

Reduces growth and multiplication of muscle cells that thicken the vessel wall

Slows plaque growth and suppresses atherosclerosis

May melt away plaque that already exists

To date arginine has been shown in animal as well as human trials that it may be effective in the following:

Decreasing and reversing atherosclerosis by decreasing intimal thickening and monocyte accumulation 9,10,11,12,13,14

• Restore normal endothelial function in hypercholesterolemia 14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21

Reversing consequences of coronary artery disease 22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30

Decreasing cholesterol and triglycerides

Improves walking distance in peripheral vascular disease 31,33,34,35,36

• Improves pain in interstitial cystitis 37,38

• Prolonged administration of arginine reverses adverse effects of high blood pressure 39,40,41,42

Decreases high blood pressure 43

• Decreases post operative infection and length of stay 44

Increases human growth hormone 45,46,47,48,49,50,116

• Improves outcome after bypass surgery 51

Improves sexual function 52

Improves exercise tolerance 53,54

• Improves renal function 55,56,57,58,59,60

• Improves glucose uptake in muscle cells 61

Improves asthma 61,62,63,64,65,66

• Improves cell mediated immunity 67,68,69,70,71

• Improves pituitary responsiveness and modulates hormonal control 72,73,74

• Improves muscle performance 75

Improves diabetes and reverses damage 76,77,78,79

May prevent diabetes 78

Reduces blood clots and strokes 80,81,82

• Helps prevent restenosis after angioplasty and bypass 83,84,85

• Helps prevent post surgical damage after intestinal manipulation 86

May improve irritable bowel syndrome 87

Improves osteoporosis 88

• May improve prostate function 89

• May give protection against size of heart attack 90

• Helps protect in cardiac transplants 91,92

• Improve scleroderma 93

Improve sickle cell disease 94

• Prevent pre-eclampsia 95

• Improves exercise capacity in pulmonary hypertension 96,117,118

• Improves wound healing 97,98,99

Reduces ulcers 101,102

Improves peripheral vascular disease 103,104

• Improves outcome in sepsis 105

Improves conditions of heart failure 106

• Improves outcome of cancer treatment 107,108

Improve alzheimer’s 109,110,111,112

Improves memory and cognitive functions 113,114,115

• L-arginine has been shown to safe in the above studies as well as others 100,116

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116. Fideieff HL,et al. Reproducibility and safety of the arginine test in normal adults.Medicina (B Aires) 1999;
117. Fagan JM, et al. L-arginine reduces right heart hypertrophy in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999 Jan 8; 254(1):100-3
118. Nitric oxide and pulmonary hypertension. Coron Artery Dis 1999 Jul; 10(5):287-94

Coenzyme Q-10 - 100 mg

Lower High Blood Pressure
Improve Endothelial Function
Essential With Cholesterol Lowering (Statin Drugs)
Aid in Congestive Heart Failure
Treat Angina and Heart Arrhythmias
Reduce Recurring Heart Attacks
Helps in Recovery of Heart Surgery
Improves Diabetes
Slows and Improves Parkinson's Symptoms

Coenzyme Q-10 ( ubiquinone )

What Is It?

One of the world's most popular supplements, the chemical coenzyme Q 10 has generated great excitement as a heart disease remedy and a cure for countless other conditions. The body naturally produces this compound, which has been dubbed "Vitamin Q" because of its essential role in keeping all systems running smoothly. In fact, the scientists who identified coenzyme Q 10 in 1957 initially honored its ubiquitous presence--it's found in every human cell and in all living organisms--by naming it "ubiquinone." Small amounts are also present in most foods.

A member of a family of compounds called quinones, coenzyme Q10 (sometimes called Co Q 10 ) works in concert with enzymes (hence the name "coenzyme") that are necessary for chemical reactions throughout the body. It is particularly abundant in high-energy-demanding cells, such as those found in the heart. In addition, coenzyme Q 10 acts as a powerful antioxidant to prevent the cellular damage caused by unstable oxygen molecules called free radicals.


Health Benefits

Control high blood pressure

Results from a Boise, Idaho, study demonstrate that coenzyme Q10 supplementation reduces isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), the condition in which systolic blood pressure (the top number) is greater than 140 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury), while diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) remains below 90 mm Hg. This type of high blood pressure is very common in the elderly; in fact, two-thirds of all hypertensive patients over the age of 65 have ISH.

Forty-one men and 35 women, all with systolic blood pressure between 150 and 170 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure below 90 mm Hg, enrolled in the study. (Nine additional patients with normal blood pressure - average 138/79 - participated as controls.) Each patient was randomly assigned to either the treatment group (60 mg of coenzyme Q 10 with 150 IU of vitamin E twice a day - an amount of vitamin E that has no effect on blood pressure) or to the placebo group (150 IU of vitamin E twice a day). Each treatment lasted for 12 weeks, and each patient's blood pressure was monitored twice weekly.

At the end of the 12-week coenzyme Q 10 treatment, an impressive 55% of the patients were found to be responders. The average reduction in the patients' systolic blood pressure was 25.9 mm Hg, with no detectable change in diastolic blood pressure. As with any study, some of the patients did not have significant drops in their systolic blood pressure.

For the 55% of the ISH patients classified as responders, the potential benefit for improved heart function is promising. For example, a separate study revealed that, in ISH patients over the age of 60, a reduction of systolic blood pressure by 20 mm Hg had obvious health benefits and significantly reduced the incidence of stroke, heart failure, and mortality. This suggests that the responders in the Boise trial, who averaged a decrease of 25.97 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure following coenzyme Q 10 supplementation, are likely to enjoy appreciable improvements in their cardiovascular health.

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Improve Endothelial Function

CoQ10's ability to improve heart health is the property that first attracted scientists and health-conscious adults to this vitally important nutrient. For years, scientists have known that by supporting energy production in the heart tissues, CoQ10 may aid conditions such as congestive heart failure, angina, arrhythmia, mitral valve prolapse, and high blood pressure. Compelling new evidence suggests that CoQ10 may fight an instigating factor in heart disease—the insidious threat known as endothelial dysfunction.

Endothelial dysfunction occurs when the blood vessels are unable to dilate in response to increased demand for blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction plays a central role in the development of cardiovascular disease, America's number-one cause of premature death.

In an exciting study from Germany, researchers found that when men with impaired endothelial function received supplemental CoQ10, they demonstrated improved endothelial function of the brachial artery, which supplies blood to the arms and hands. This important finding suggests that CoQ10 supplementation may help prevent and treat endothelial dysfunction, thus protecting the cardiovascular system against an initiating cause of atherosclerosis.

An extensive eight-year clinical trial found that CoQ10 helped patients with existing cardiovascular disease to improve their condition and decrease their reliance on heart medications. After 18 months of CoQ10 supplementation, an impressive 58% improved their American Heart Association scores by one “class,” or health gradient, while 28% improved by two classes. Most importantly, nearly half of all participants demonstrated a decreased need for medications.

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Complement cholesterol-lowering statin drugs

Coenzyme Q 10 is an essential supplement when using statin drugs such as Lipitor, Pravachol, Lescol, and Zocor. While blocking the liver mechanism that manufactures cholesterol, statins also block the production of coenzyme Q 10. Although the long-term effect of this is unknown, some nutritionally oriented doctors have asked the FDA to attach a warning label to statin prescriptions. In Europe many physicians routinely prescribe coenzyme Q 10 as a supplement for anyone taking a statin drug.


Peter H. Langsjoen, MD, is the foremost authority on the use of coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of heart disease. His numerous research studies can be found in the world's most prestigious scientific journals.

In 1990, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science published Dr. Langsjoen's studies on the safety of statin drugs. Dr. Langsjoen explained that the mechanism by which statin drugs lower cholesterol also inhibits the natural biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 in the liver. Dr. Langsjoen said that he conducted these studies because, “if lovastatin were to reduce levels of coenzyme Q10, this reduction would constitute a new risk of cardiac disease, since it is established that coenzyme Q10 is indispensable for cardiac function.” Dr. Langsjoen then reported that his animal and human studies showed that lovastatin does indeed lower levels of coenzyme Q10. Dr. Langsjoen went on to describe case histories of his lovastatin patients who suffered from progressive cardiac degeneration, but whose heart function improved after oral administration of coenzyme Q10 .

Move forward to July 8, 2002, and we find that Dr. Langsjoen has become a vocal critic of statin drugs and has published a new paper titled “Statin-Induced Cardiomyopathy.” In an excerpt from this paper, Dr. Langsjoen describes his 17-year experience with statin drugs as follows:

“I have seen a frightening increase in heart failure secondary to statin usage, ‘statin cardiomyopathy.' Over the past five years, statins have become more potent, are being prescribed in higher doses, and are being used with reckless abandon in the elderly and in patients with ‘normal' cholesterol levels.”

Dr. Langsjoen attributes these heart failure cases as being caused by “statin-induced coenzyme Q10 depletion” that is preventable if statin drug users supplemented with coenzyme Q10 .

Life Extension

Treat heart disease, especially congestive heart failure

Heart disease sufferers tend to be relatively deficient in coenzyme Q 10. When levels are boosted by supplements, heart function appears to be enhanced. In addition, the compound's antioxidant properties may inhibit artery-clogging plaque buildup and potentially fatal blood clots.

People with congestive heart failure, in which a weakened heart pumps inefficiently, may stand to benefit the most from coenzyme Q 10 supplements. In a 12-month placebo-controlled trial of more than 2,500 people suffering from this disease, 80% experienced an improvement in symptoms--less ankle swelling and shortness of breath, and better color and sleep habits--when they supplemented their standard medications with a daily 100 mg dose of coenzyme Q 10. They were also far less likely than placebo-takers to require hospitalization for their condition. Rates of death from the disease did not change, however. Recent research suggests that it may even be a useful adjunctive therapy for those awaiting heart transplant surgery. Study participants showed a decrease in the 6-min walk test and a decrease in dyspnea, New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, nocturia, and fatigue.

Most importantly, it appears to support the heart muscle's strenuous efforts to beat 100,000 times a day. Without adequate levels of this enzyme, the heart muscle can become weaker and less efficient at pumping blood through the body. Coenzyme Q 10's popularity as a heart supplement is very well established in countries such as Sweden , Italy , and Canada. In Japan , up to 10% of adults take coenzyme Q 10 regularly.


In particular, a study of heart attack patients showed that compared to placebo, supplementation with 120 mg a day of coenzyme Q10 reduced secondary cardiac events by 45% and significantly reduced the number of cardiac deaths. Many of these heart-attack patients were prescribed a “statin” drug to lower cholesterol levels. The major adverse effect of statin treatment was fatigue that occurred in 40.8% of the placebo group, whereas only 6.8% of the patients supplemented with coenzyme Q10 experienced fatigue.

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Treat Angina and arrhythmias.

The intense chest pain known as angina may occur less frequently under the influence of coenzyme Q 10's heart-enhancing actions. In lightening the heart's workload and steadying heart rhythm, coenzyme Q 10 may be particularly useful for people who suffer from irregular heart beats (arrhythmias) following a heart attack. Scientists have found that people suffering from coronary artery disease have very low levels of coenzyme Q 10. More research is needed to determine whether this relationship is causal, however because of the low risk of side effects supplementation with co Q 10 is widely used by people suffering from this condition.


Heart Attack

One important study, for example, found that people who received daily CoQ10 supplements within 3 days of a heart attack were significantly less likely to experience subsequent heart attacks and chest pain. In addition, these same patients were less likely to die of heart disease than those who did not receive the supplements.

University of Maryland Medical School

Heart Surgery

Research indicates that introducing CoQ10 prior to heart surgery, including bypass surgery and heart transplantation, can reduce damage caused by free radicals, strengthen heart function, and lower the incidence of irregular heart beat (arrhythmias) during the recovery phase

University of Maryland Medical School


An Australian study found that patients with type II diabetes who took 200 mg of CoQ10 a day over 12 weeks showed improved blood sugar control. Supplementation produced, on average, a threefold increase in CoQ10 levels in the trial subjects, while decreasing their blood pressure and hemoglobin A1C, a long-term indicator of blood sugar control. By improving blood pressure and optimizing blood sugar, CoQ10 may help prevent the dangerous metabolic complications of diabetes.
In yet another study focused on diabetes, CoQ10 helped patients to optimize their blood sugar levels while guarding against a dangerous condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. In this trial, 39 diabetic patients received 120 mg of a CoQ10 analog for 2-18 weeks. In approximately one third of the patients, blood sugar levels fell dramatically, declining by at least 30%. Additionally, more than half of the patients showed decreased levels of ketone bodies, which are breakdown products of fatty acid metabolism. Excessively high levels of ketone bodies can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, a condition marked by excessive blood acidity that can result in a loss of consciousness.

Life Extension

CoQ10 Improves Parkinson's Symptoms and Slows Disease Progression

In a study of Parkinson's disease patients, 360 mg a day of coenzyme Q10 was administered for only 4 weeks and there was a mild symptomatic improvement compared to placebo. More important, an established clinical test to measure Parkinson's symptom function showed significantly better improvement of performance in the coenzyme Q10-supplemented patients compared with the placebo group. This new study helped corroborate a report last year that Parkinson's patients consuming 1200 mg a day of coenzyme Q10 showed a 44% reduction in the decline of motor skills, movement, and mental function compared to the placebo group. Those receiving this high-dose coenzyme Q10 also demonstrated an improved ability to perform daily living tasks. What was remarkable about this 16-month study was that coenzyme Q10 slowed the progression of the disease, something that Parkinson's drugs do not do.

Life Extension

Pomegranate - 200 mg

Lower High Blood Pressure
Increase Nitric Oxide
Lower Risk of Atherosclerosis
Reverse Plaque Buildup
Lower Risk of Heart Disease
Prevent Blood Clots And Bad LDL Cholesterol
Increase Blood Flow To The Heart
Benefit Erectile Dysfunction
Prevent Osteoarthritis

Pomegranate ( Punica granatum )

What Is It?

Used in folk medicine (to treat Inflammation, sore throats, and rheumatism) for centuries in the Middle East, and India, the pomegranate is about the size of an orange or an apple. It has a tough, dark red or brownish rind. The seeds and the juicy translucent scarlet red pulp surrounding the seeds of the pomegranate are the edible parts of the fruit, although only the pulp has any flavor. Encased within a bitter-tasting, white, spongy, inedible membrane, the seeds can be gently pried out with your hands. Perhaps one of the reasons the pomegranate isn't as popular as it deserves is that it takes time and care to get to the seeds. The flavor of these juicy seeds is delicate, sweet, and tangy.

The pomegranate, affectionately known as the "jewel of winter," has been increasingly acclaimed for its health benefits, in particular, for its disease-fighting antioxidant potential. Preliminary studies suggest that pomegranate juice may contain almost three times the total antioxidant ability compared with the same quantity of green tea or red wine. It also provides a substantial amount of potassium, is high in fiber, and contains Vitamin C and niacin.


Health Benefits

Pomegranate Juice and Cardiovascular Health

Five studies demonstrating a beneficial effect of pomegranate juice on cardiovascular health have recently been published in a number of scientific journals. These studies concluded that pomegranate juice:

  • significantly increased levels of nitric oxide;
  • reduced arterial plaque by 30 percent;
  • inhibited ACE by 36 percent and reduced systolic blood pressure.

    NewsWise ( American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP)

    Pomegranate Enhances Nitric Oxide, Improves Endothelial Function

    Pomegranate protects cardiovascular health by augmenting nitric oxide, which supports the functioning of endothelial cells that line the arterial walls. Nitric oxide signals vascular smooth muscle to relax, thereby increasing blood flow through arteries and veins. Nitric oxide reduces injury to the vessel walls, which also helps prevent the development of atherosclerosis.

    Scientists have known for some time that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) can reduce the expression of nitric oxide synthase, the enzyme that produces nitric oxide. Recently, they discovered that pomegranate juice enhances the bioactivity of nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells. Furthermore, pomegranate's antioxidant properties protect nitric oxide from oxidative destruction, thus augmenting its biological actions.

    An Italian study examined the role of pomegranate juice in nitric oxide synthase activity in artery sections that had already developed atherosclerosis. In these segments, blood forcing its way around atherosclerotic plaque buildup exerts significant stress on arterial walls. This stress reduces nitric oxide synthase expression and sets the stage for the formation of yet more plaque.

    The researchers selected mice with a genetic predisposition to developing atherosclerosis. They put the mice on a high-fat diet, let arterial disease develop for six months, and then added pomegranate juice to the experimental group's drinking water for 24 weeks. The placebo group was given plain drinking water.

    Pomegranate juice not only increased the expression of nitric oxide synthase in both healthy and atherosclerotic blood vessels, but increased it the most in blood vessels with the most plaque buildup, as shown below.

    Increase in Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression by Pomegranate
  • Low-prone atherosclerotic areas +26.1%
  • High-prone atherosclerotic areas +46.7%
  • Healthy blood vessel areas +3.3%
  • Pomegranate's ability to increase nitric oxide synthase resulted in a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesions:

    Reduction in Atherosclerotic Lesions by Pomegranate
  • Low-prone atherosclerotic areas -20.2%
  • High-prone atherosclerotic areas -19.3%
  • Healthy blood vessel areas -25.6%
  • In other words, in healthy parts of the blood vessels, pomegranate juice reduced lesion volume by nearly 26%, while in areas with much more plaque, pomegranate reduced the volume of lesions by approximately 20%. Pomegranate's ability to enhance nitric oxide synthase and protect nitric oxide from destruction may facilitate longer-lasting concentrations of nitric oxide in endothelial cells, thus enhancing endothelial function and conferring profound cardiovascular protection.

    Life Extension


    A preliminary new study shows that people with diabetes who drank pomegranate juice for three months had a lower risk of atherosclerosis -- or hardening of the arteries. In addition, the pomegranate juice appeared to slow the absorption of unhealthy LDL cholesterol LDL cholesterol by immune cells.

    People with diabetes have increased risk for atherosclerosis, which contributes to coronary heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, and other circulation problems.

    These results suggest that the antioxidants found in pomegranate juice may be especially beneficial in reducing these heart-related risks associated with diabetes.


    Tests showed that pomegranate juice reduced the effects of stress on human blood vessel cells by stimulating the production of nitric oxide. This chemical is thought to help keep arteries open and keep blood flowing.

    Researchers say the beneficial effects of pomegranate juice on hardening of the arteries are likely largely due to its high antioxidant content. The study showed that the antioxidant level in pomegranate juice was higher than that found in other fruit juices, including blueberry, cranberry, orange, and even red wine.

    Previous studies on red wine, black tea, and purple grape juice have already indicated these antioxidant-rich beverages can protect arteries from damage by improving blood flow.


    Consumption of pomegranate juice which is rich in tannins, possess anti-atherosclerotic properties which could be related to its potent anti-oxidative characteristics. As some antioxidants were recently shown to reduce blood pressure, we studied the effect of pomegranate juice consumption (50 ml, 1.5mmol of total polyphenols per day, for 2 weeks) by hypertensive patients on their blood pressure and on serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity. A 36% decrement in serum ACE activity and a 5% reduction in systolic blood pressure were noted. Similar dose-dependent inhibitory effect (31%) of pomegranate juice on serum ACE activity was observed also in vitro. As reduction in serum ACE activity, even with no decrement in blood pressure, was previously shown to attenuate atherosclerosis, pomegranate juice can offer a wide protection against cardiovascular diseases which could be related to its inhibitory effect on oxidative stress and on serum ACE activity.


    Reversing Plaque Buildup and Lowering Heart Disease Risk

    For years, scientists have believed that while antioxidants and other nutrients can slow additional atherosclerotic plaque buildup, they do little to reverse the process once plaque has already formed on the arterial walls. Now, a remarkable study from Israel indicates that pomegranate can actually reduce existing plaque formations in the arteries.

    Nineteen patients from the Vascular Surgery Clinic in Haifa, Israel, were selected to participate in this three-year trial. All were non-smokers between the ages of 65 and 75, with asymptomatic severe carotid artery narrowing (stenosis) ranging from 70% to 90%. In other words, their arteries were so occluded by plaque buildup that only 10-30% of the original artery volume was available to permit blood flow. Ten of the 19 patients consumed 50 mL (1.7 ounces) of pomegranate juice daily, while the other nine received a placebo beverage. Both groups had similar blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose levels at baseline, and continued their ongoing drug regimens. Dietary and lifestyle practices were kept constant during the study.

    Despite the patients' advanced atherosclerosis, ingesting pomegranate juice produced statistically significant reductions in the thickness of their carotid artery walls, which is correlated with decreased risk for heart attack and stroke. After only three months, the average thickness declined by 13%, and after 12 months, the thickness dropped 35% compared to baseline. During this same 12-month period, the average carotid artery thickness of the placebo group increased by 9%.

    Life Extension

    Prevent Blood Clots and Bad LDL Cholesterol

    Researchers report that they are rich in antioxidants that can keep bad LDL cholesterol from oxidizing (American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, May 2000). This degradation of LDL seems to be an initial step in the development of atherosclerosis. In addition, pomegranate juice, like aspirin, can help keep blood platelets from clumping together to form unwanted clots.

    Does this make any difference clinically? More recent research has found that eight ounces of pomegranate juice daily for three months improved the amount of oxygen getting to the heart muscle of patients with coronary heart disease (American Journal of the College of Cardiology, Sept. 2005).

    Health Central

    One year of pomegranate use more than doubled the time it took for the initiation of LDL oxidation, from 30 minutes to 65 minutes. Since LDL must be oxidized before it can adhere to the arterial wall, delays in oxidation and increasing levels of antioxidants in the blood keep new plaque from building up, while paraoxonase-1 may help break up existing plaque, leading to overall reductions in plaque formation over time.

    Life Extension

    Pomegranate Juice and Ischemic Heart Disease

    A study published in the September 2005 edition of the American Journal of the College of Cardiologists, examined the effect of pomegranate juice on patients with ischemic heart disease. Forty-five patients drank eight ounces of pomegranate juice or placebo for three months; blood flow to the heart before and after exercise was measured using thallium scans at zero and three months. Researchers found that in patients drinking pomegranate juice, oxygen deficiency to the heart during exercise was significantly reduced compared to placebo, suggesting increased blood flow to the heart.

    NewsWise ( American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP)

    Pomegranate Juice's Potential Benefits For Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

    A study published in the July 2005 edition of the Journal of Urology, entitled “Oxidative Stress in Arteriogenic Erectile Dysfunction: Prophylactic Role of Antioxidants,” examined the effects of long term intake of pomegranate juice on erectile dysfunction (ED) in an animal model. The results suggest for the first time that free radicals (oxidative stress) are a contributing factor in erectile dysfunction. As a result, pomegranate juice may be of benefit through an antioxidant mechanism.

    NewsWise ( American Association of Naturopathic Physicians (AANP)

    Preventing Osteoarthritis

    Inflammation destroys joint-cushioning cartilage, inflicting tremendous pain and disability on the estimated 21 million Americans who suffer from osteoarthritis. By severely curtaining physical activity, osteoarthritis can initiate a vicious cycle in which its sufferers become ever more sedentary (and often overweight), triggering additional health problems.

    Pomegranate's ability to break the cycle of inflammation and tissue damage spurred scientists at Case Western University to explore whether it could protect joint cartilage from inflammation in patients with osteoarthritis. In an in-vitro experiment, they first treated cartilage from osteoarthritis patients with pomegranate fruit extract, and then stimulated the tissue with interleukin-1 beta, a potent inflammatory mediator. The scientists then measured the extent of cartilage destruction and production of inflammatory molecules in the tissue samples.

    Pretreatment with pomegranate fruit extract inhibited enzymes that break down cartilage, and sharply reduced the volume of inflammatory products released from the tissue. The researchers concluded that pomegranate fruit extract “may inhibit cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis and may also be a useful nutritive supplement for maintaining joint integrity and function.”

    Life Extension

    L-Theanine - 200 mg

    Relieve Stress And Anxiety
    Lower High Blood Pressure
    Cardiovascular Support
    Improve Immunity
    Reduce Symptoms Of PMS


    What Is It?


    Theanine is an amino acid found in ordinary tea leaves from Camellia sinensis (also known as Thea sinensis, hence the name theanine, pronounced like tea-anene). It is also found in other species of Camellia and in the edible bay boletes mushroom Xerocomus badius, but is otherwise rare in nature. L-theanine has the reputation for promoting mental and physical relaxation-decreasing stress and anxiety-without inducing drowsiness. In the beverage tea, it has an influence on taste (reducing bitterness) and is said to counteract some of the nervous agitation that can come with caffeine. It has been indicated by laboratory studies that theanine increases the level of GABA (gamma-amino-butyric acid), an important inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA serves a sedative function that brings balance to excitability that can lead to restlessness, insomnia, and other disruptive conditions. Theanine also appears to increase levels of dopamine, another brain chemical with mood-enhancing effects, which can reduce blood pressure.

    Institute For Traditional Medicine

    Health Benefits

    Relieve Stress and Anxiety

    The calming effect of green tea may seem contradictory to the stimulatory property of tea's caffeine content but it can be explained by the action of L-theanine. This amino acid actually acts antagonistically against the stimulatory effects of caffeine on the nervous system. Research on human volunteers has demonstrated that L-theanine creates a sense of relaxation in approximately 30-40 minutes after ingestion via at least two different mechanisms. First, this amino acid directly stimulates the production of alpha brain waves, creating a state of deep relaxation and mental alertness similar to what is achieved through meditation. Second, L-theanine is involved in the formation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma amino butyric acid (GABA). GABA influences the levels of two other neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, producing the key relaxation effect.



    Theanine readily crosses the blood-brain barrier of humans and exerts subtle changes in biochemistry. An increase in alpha waves has been documented, and the effect has been compared to getting a massage or taking a hot bath. Theanine is different than kava-kava in that it doesn't cause drowsiness. And unlike tranquilizing drugs, it doesn't interfere with the ability to think. Studies on rodents show just the opposite: theanine enhances the ability to learn and remember. By shutting down the “worry” mode, theanine increases concentration and focuses thought.

    Life Extension

    Reduce High Blood Pressure

    One of the protective factors in the Japanese diet is green tea. According to one study, drinking one or more cups of tea can almost halve the risk of heart attack. Green tea contains a much higher concentration of theanine than other teas. Theanine has been proven to lower blood pressure. It works through its GABA-enhancing effects. GABA lowers blood pressure. Genetically hypertensive rats taking 2000 mg/kg of theanine a day showed significant reductions in blood pressure. Green tea extract contains a phytochemical known as GMA that also lowers blood pressure. Combining them together may have significant effects.

    Life Extension

    L-theanine has a significant effect on the release or reduction of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin, resulting in improved memory and learning ability. L-theanine may also influence emotions due to its effects on the increased release of dopamine. L-theanine reduces brain serotonin concentration by either curtailing serotonin synthesis or increasing degradation in the brain. The regulation of blood pressure is partly dependent upon catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in both the brain and the peripheral nervous system. Studies on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) showed an impressive blood pressure lowering effect with L-theanine. The lowered blood pressure effect was dose-dependent with the highest test dose creating the most significant drop.


    Cardiovascular Support

    Theanine has also been shown to prevent lipid peroxidation of LDL (low-density lipoprotein), a protective effect that also undoubtedly contributes to tea's reputation for promoting cardiovascular health. Peroxidation of lipids is thought to play a role in the development of degenerative conditions such as atherosclerosis. Indeed, theanine appears to exert a variety of complementary, beneficial effects. Japanese researchers experimented on rats with elevated lipid and triglyceride levels caused by liver tumors. After adding powdered green tea and theanine to the rats' diet, the scientists concluded that theanine was at least partially responsible for lowering cholesterol and triglyceride levels. While the blood lipid changes may have resulted solely from the decrease in tumor mass, the scientists speculated that both tea and theanine exert lipid-lowering effects. That explanation appears to be supported by the findings of another study, which determined that theanine plus green tea catechins, such as EGCG, reduced triglyceride levels in the serum and livers of laboratory mice. The mice also experienced a significant reduction in serum fatty acids while ingesting theanine and tea catechins, and lost significant body fat as well.

    Life Extension

    Neuroprotection and stroke

    Theanine has been demonstrated to cross the blood-brain barrier. In an epidemiological study of nearly 6,000 women living in Japan, those who consumed five or more cups of green tea a day were significantly less likely than non-tea drinkers to suffer stroke. In a follow-up to the study, researchers determined that women who routinely drank little or no green tea were more than twice as likely as heavy tea drinkers to suffer stroke or cerebral hemorrhage.

    Subsequent experiments have confirmed that theanine protects the brain from damage during ischemia, a condition in which the brain temporarily receives too little oxygen due to reduced blood flow, which may result from stroke. A recent Japanese study showed that theanine significantly protects the brain after an ischemic incident occurs.

    Life Extension

    The neuroprotective properties of green tea are attributed in large part to theanine's ability to influence glutamate binding and transport in the brain. After stroke an excess amount of glutamate in the space between brain cell receptors is postulated to lead to increased neuronal death. In this study, mice pretreated with an injection of theanine showed less brain cell death after cerebral infarct (stroke). In fact the more theanine that a mouse was injected with before stroke, the more brain cells that survived the stroke intact. Thus further studies are warranted to ascertain how theanine can help in the reduction of brain damage after stroke.


    Priming Immunity

    In human experiments, subjects consumed either tea (containing caffeine and a known amount of theanine ) or coffee, which also contains caffeine but not theanine. Blood tests showed that tea drinkers, but not coffee drinkers, saw increased production of an important disease-fighting cytokine by their T cells. When pathogens invade, their surfaces often bristle with alkylamines similar to those found in tea. T cells that have been primed by prior exposure to theanine are better equipped to promptly recognize and neutralize the microbial threat. The Harvard researchers concluded, “These data provide evidence that dietary intake of tea . . . containing alkylamine antigens or their precursors [for example, theanine ] may prime human [gamma] [delta] T cells that then can provide natural resistance to microbial infections

    Life Extension


    Japanese researchers have discovered that theanine works for PMS. Using a distress questionnaire, they tracked the reactions of 20 women taking the new supplement for two months. Theanine caused documented reductions in mental, social and physical symptoms. Women who benefited took 100 mg of theanine twice a day during the questionable days.

    Life Extension

    Lycopene - 10 mg

    Antioxidant - Free Radicals
    Heart Disease
    Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Disease

    Lycopene (like'uh-peen)

    What Is It?


    Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment , a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits . Lycopene is the most common carotenoid in the human body and is one of the most potent carotenoid antioxidants. Its name is derived from the tomato's species classification, Solanum lycopersicum (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum ).


    Health Benefits

    Heart Disease

    Researchers have hypothesized that the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which carries cholesterol into the bloodstream, plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis, the underlying disorder leading to heart attacks and ischemic strokes. Antioxidant nutrients are believed to slow the progression of atherosclerosis by virtue of their ability to inhibit damaging oxidative processes. Of all the antioxidant nutrients, lycopene appears to be the most potent.

    European researchers studied lycopene concentration and risk for cardiovascular disease. They found that men with the highest levels of lycopene in their adipose tissue were 48% less likely to develop cardiovascular disease. They also found that while lycopene consumption was cardioprotective, alpha-carotene and beta-carotene were not.

    Women also benefit from lycopene . A 2003 study by Harvard researchers found that women with the highest intake of lycopene had a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease compared to women with a low intake of lycopene. Women who consumed seven or more servings of tomato-based foods weekly saw a nearly 30% risk reduction in total cardiovascular disease compared to a group with intakes of less than 1.5 servings per week.

    A study in Finland measured lycopene blood levels and the thickness of the carotid artery wall. Researchers found a strong correlation between low blood lycopene concentrations and thickening of the carotid artery, which is associated with an increased risk of heart attack. The study authors concluded that low plasma lycopene concentrations are associated with early atherosclerosis.

    -Life Extension Foundation

    Flax Seed Powder - 100 mg

    Blood Pressure
    Diverticular disorders
    Menopausal symptoms
    Menstrual cramps
    Female infertility

    Flax Seed (Flaks)
    Latin name: Linum usitatissimum
    Other name: Linseed

    What Is It?

    Flaxseeds are rich in alpha linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fat that is a precursor to the form of omega-3 found in fish oils called eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA.


    Health Benefits

    High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Flaxseed offers multiple health benefits, including improved cardiovascular health. Researchers in the Netherlands examined dietary phytoestrogen intake and heart health among more than 300 postmenopausal women. The effects of dietary isoflavones, such as those found in soy, were compared with the effects of dietary lignans, such as those present in flaxseed. The researcher determined that while isoflavones had no significant effect on blood pressure, dietary lignans were associated with lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. Even low levels of dietary lignans exerted a protective effect on blood pressure.

    Their findings echo those of a Canadian team that studied how flaxseed supplementation affects blood pressure in postmenopausal women with vascular disease. After consuming a diet rich in flaxseed, the women were required to undergo a stressful mental challenge. The subjects' blood pressure was monitored and results were interpreted in light of the women's known atherosclerotic disease. Flaxseed significantly reduced blood pressure related to mental stress. “ Flax phytoestrogens ameliorate certain responses to stress and thus may afford protection against atherosclerosis,” concluded the researchers. They noted that two components of flaxseed—alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid, and lignan phytoestrogens—may play a dual role in this blood pressure-reducing effect.

    -Life Extension

    Endowed with an interesting nutritional profile, flaxseeds provide an essential fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). ALA is converted by the body into the type of omega-3 fatty acids that are found primarily in fatty fish such as salmon, sardines and mackerel. Health benefits attributed to omega-3 fatty acids include anti-inflammatory properties and beneficial effects on high blood pressure . Omega-3s make platelets in the blood less likely to stick together and they reduce blood clotting, thereby lessening the chance of a heart attack.

    Several studies indicate that flaxseed oil, as well as ground flaxseeds, can lower cholesterol, thereby significantly reducing the risk of heart disease. Taking flaxseed oil may also protect against Angina (chest pain) and high blood pressure. In addition, a five-year study done recently at Boston 's Simmons College found that flaxseed oil may be useful in preventing a second heart attack. It may also help prevent elevated blood pressure by inhibiting inflammatory reactions that cause artery-hardening plaque and poor circulation.


    Control constipation, hemorrhoids, diverticular disorders and gallstones.

    Because they are high in dietary fiber, ground flaxseeds can help ease the passage of stools and thus relieve constipation, hemorrhoids and diverticular disease. In those with diverticular disease, flaxseeds may also keep intestinal pouches free of waste and thus keep potential infection at bay. Taken for inflammatory bowel disease, flaxseed oil can help to calm inflammation and repair any intestinal tract damage. In addition, the oil may prevent painful gallstones from developing and even dissolve existing stones.

    Treat menopausal symptoms, menstrual cramps, female infertility and endometriosis.

    Because the hormone-balancing lignans and plant estrogens (phytoestrogens) in flaxseed oil help stabilize a woman's estrogen-progesterone ratio, they can have beneficial effects on the menstrual cycle and relieve the hot flashes of perimenopause and menopause. In a randomized, double-blind, wheat germ Placebo -controlled clinical trial, flaxseed improved mild menopausal symptoms by about 35 percent for hot flashes and about 44 percent for night sweats. Flaxseed oil may also improve uterine function and thus treat fertility problems. In addition, the essential fatty acids in flaxseed oil have been shown to block production of Prostaglandins , hormone-like substances that, when released in excess amounts during menstruation, can cause the heavy bleeding associated with endometriosis.


    L-Proline - 300 mg

    Blood Pressure And Cholesterol
    Joint and Skin Health

    L-Proline (proh -leen, -lin)

    What Is It?

    L-Proline, a non-essential amino acid, is a precursor, along with vitamin C, of collagen. Collagen is a building block of tendons, ligaments, arteries, veins and muscles--the heart muscle in particular; collagen also helps heal cartilage, and cushions joints and vertebrae.


    Health Benefits

    High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Proline is very important in the process of reversing atherosclerotic deposits. Cholesterol-carrying fat globules (lipoproteins) attach to the inside of the blood vessel wall via biological adhesive tapes. Proline is a formidable “Teflon” agent, which can neutralize the stickiness of these fat globules. The therapeutic effect is twofold. First, proline helps to prevent the further buildup of atherosclerotic deposits and second, proline helps to release already deposited fat globules from the blood vessel wall into the bloodstream.

    When many fat globules are released from the plaques in the artery walls, the deposit size decreases and leads to a reversal of cardiovascular disease. Proline can be synthesized by the body, but the amounts synthesized are frequently inadequate, particularly in patients with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

    -Dr. Mathias Rath

    Mathias Rath and colleague conducted a yearlong study to determine the effect of a defined nutritional supplementation program on the natural progression of coronary artery disease. It is postulated that the nutrients used by Rath initiate the reconstitution of the vascular wall. Ascorbate is essential for the synthesis and hydroxylation of collagen. L-lysine and L-proline are important substrates for the biosynthesis of matrix protein and competitively inhibit the binding of lipoprotein to the vascular matrix. Maintaining the integrity and physiological function of the vascular wall is the key therapeutic target in controlling cardiovascular disease.

    -Dr. Lam

    Joint and Skin Health

    Joint Health

    Proline is the amino acid necessary for the production of collagen and cartilage for healthy joints, ligaments and tendons. Joints are complicated structures that connect bones to allow for movement. There are different types of joints, including hinge, ball-and-socket, saddle and pivot joints. They are bound on the outside by fibrous bands, called ligaments. Each ligament contains fibrous tissue of collagen, in a capsule, which surrounds the joint. The lining of the capsule is a thin membrane called the synovium that continuously produces a small amount of fluid for lubrication. Cartilage is a smooth, flexible tissue that covers the surface where the bones meet, and acts as a shock absorber and reduces friction. Osteoarthritis, is caused by wear and tear on the joints, as well as possible free radical damage, and generally is associated with aging. While heredity and obesity effect the incidence of Osteoarthritis, it may also develop due to overuse or injury to the joints. The articular cartilage, which is the smooth lining of the joint, begins to deteriorate, and may eventually affect the bone. Without sufficient cartilage, movement of the joint becomes restricted and painful. Swelling, stiffness and pain are symptoms of this often-debilitating condition, which affects the joints of the hips, knees, and spine.

    Skin Health

    Skin is the largest organ of the body, and Proline and Hydroxyproline make collagen, which is a component of skin tissue. Younger skin is thicker and has more elasticity than older skin. Aged skin is thinner and the decrease in collagen creates changes including less fibrous and elastic elements. Older skin is less subtle and smooth. Aging, combined with the effects of sun and free radical damage, results in older looking, wrinkled skin. Proline, along with other amino acids such as Glycine, help create new cell formation and can contribute to maintaining younger looking skin. Lubrication is also important, such as drinking sufficient water and including essential fatty acids in the diet.


    L-Carnitine - 200 mg

    Cardioprotectivity and Triglyceride Lowering Effect
    Type 2 diabetes
    Male infertility


    What Is It?

    Carnitine is an amino acid-like compound that helps the body produce energy. While readily abundant in meats and dairy foods, some people take carnitine in supplement form to increase vitality. Carnitine transports fatty acids to the "factory" portion of cells, which then convert the Fat into energy that the heart, muscles, and other body tissues can use.

    Without enough carnitine to move fatty acids to the right place, your body will eventually wear down, and you may feel drained and tired. The heart in particular is highly dependent on carnitine, and taking it in supplement form is currently being explored as an option for speeding recovery after a heart attack as well as for treating Angina (chest pain), arrhythmia (irregular heartbeats), and congestive heart failure.

    WholeHealth MD


    Health Benefits

    Cardioprotectivity and Triglyceride Lowering Effect

    L- Carnitine - "Supplemental L-carnitine may have cardioprotective activity in addition to beneficially affecting cardiac function. It may have a triglyceride lowering effect in some as well as help to elevate HDL - cholesterol levels." " Favorable results have been reported for many years with regard to the use of L-carnitine in the treatment of various forms of cardiovascular disease.
    The walking capacity of patients with intermittent claudication was significantly improved in one double blind cross over study of patients receiving oral L-carnitine."

    -PDR (Physicians Desk Reference) for Nutritional Supplements" - 2001


    Cardiovascular and peripheral-arterial disease

    Several studies have examined supplemental carnitine in the management of cardiac ischemia (restriction of blood flow to the heart) and peripheral arterial disease (of which the most important symptom is poor circulation in the legs, known as intermittent claudication) . Because levels of carnitine are low in the failing heart muscle, supplemental amounts might be beneficial to the organ by counteracting the toxic effects of free fatty acids and improving carbohydrate metabolism. In short-term studies, carnitine has demonstrated anti-ischemic properties when given orally and by injection. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial in Italy with patients who had suffered a first heart attack found that supplemental carnitine (given intravenously for five days, then 6 grams/day orally for one year) reduced heart failure and overall mortality. The results were not conclusive but promising enough to justify a larger study whose results have not yet been reported.

    -Office of Dietary Supplements

    Type 2 diabetes

    Insulin resistance, which plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes, may be associated with a defect in fatty-acid oxidation in muscle. This raises the question as to whether mitochondrial dysfunction might be a factor in the development of the disease. Increased storage of fat in lean tissues has become a marker for insulin resistance. Early research suggests that supplementation with L-carnitine intravenously may improve insulin sensitivity in diabetics by decreasing fat levels in muscle and may lower glucose levels in the blood by more promptly increasing its oxidation in cells. A recent analysis of two multicenter clinical trials of subjects with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes found that treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (3 grams/day orally) for one year provided significant relief of nerve pain and improved vibration perception in those with diabetic neuropathy. The treatment was most effective in subjects with type 2 diabetes of short duration.

    -Office of Dietary Supplements

    Male infertility

    The carnitine content of seminal fluid is directly related to sperm count and motility, suggesting that the compound might be of value in treating male infertility. Several studies indicate that carnitine supplementation (2-3 grams/day for 3-4 months) may improve sperm quality, and one randomized, double-blind crossover trial found that 2 grams/day of carnitine taken for 2 months by 100 infertile men increased the concentration and both total and forward motility of their sperm. The reported benefits may relate to increased mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation (providing more energy for sperm) and reduced cell death in the testes. However, a recent randomized controlled trial with 21 infertile men found that 3 grams/day of carnitine taken for 24 weeks produced no significant increases in sperm motility or total motile sperm counts as compared to placebo. Larger and more carefully designed studies are needed to evaluate carnitine's potential value as an infertility therapy.

    -Office of Dietary Supplements

    L-Taurine - 35 mg

    Congestive Heart Failure  
    Cardiovascular Disease
    Reduces Platelet Aggregation


    What Is It?

    Taurine, an amino acid derivative found in meat and other animal foods (except for milk and milk products), appears to shield the heart from harm. It's best known for empowering bile acids to clear cholesterol from the body. It may also fight cellular troublemakers that can damage the heart. Studies in animals suggest that taurine lowers blood pressure as well--yet another heart-healthy property. Although research has produced conflicting results, taurine may also benefit vision disorders, epilepsy, and gallstones.

    WholeHealth MD


    Health Benefits

    Congestive Heart Failure

    The amino acid taurine is an important nutrient found in very high concentrations in excitable tissue. Its lack in heart muscle cells is a particularly frequent cause of heart failure. Generally, CHF responds favorably to taurine therapy. In double-blind studies, taurine supplementation has been shown to reduce signs and symptoms of CHF. Taurine promotes natriuresis (sodium excretion) and diuresis (urine excretion), and minimizes many of the adverse actions of angiotensin II, including the induction of cardiac hypertrophy, volume overload, and myocardial remodeling. Since ACE inhibitors are the mainstay treatment for CHF, taurine supplementation is extremely important.

    Life Extension Foundation


    Reduces Platelet Aggregation

    Taurine may benefit cardiovascular health is by reducing the tendency of special blood cells, called platelets, to stick together or aggregate. Sticky platelets can form blood clots, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke if they block arteries to the heart or brain. In a study conducted at Brandeis University, platelets from taurine-depleted animals were twice as sensitive to aggregation as platelets from animals receiving taurine. In humans receiving supplemental taurine (even though their taurine status was normal to begin with), resistance to platelet aggregation increased by 30 to 70 percent. In other words, decreased platelet "stickiness" was seen with increased taurine.

    Body Building For You

    Cardiovascular Disease

    In the cell, taurine keeps potassium and magnesium inside the cell while keeping excessive sodium out. In this sense it works like a diuretic. But unlike prescription diuretics, it is not a cellular poison. It does not act against the kidney, but improves kidney function instead. Taurine is very useful in fighting tissue swelling and fluid accumulation. People with heart failure, liver disease, congestive heart failure frequently have unwanted fluid accumulation inside their bodies usually have slight fluid retention.

    Taurine has been very successfully used to treat people with high blood pressure. When excessive fluid is normalized, blood pressure becomes normalized. Taurine functions to dampen the sympathetic nervous system, thereby relieving arterial spasm. When blood vessels relax, the body’s blood pressure will fall.

    There have been studies showing the positive effectiveness of taurine on heart failure. Aside from having diuretic properties, taurine is able to strengthen the heart muscles and maintain proper calcium balance.

    Working together with magnesium, taurine also is able to regulate heart rhythm and help to stabilize it.

    Dr. Lam

    Policosanol - 20 mg

    Lowers High Cholesterol


    What Is It?

    Policosanol is a unique natural product derived from sugar cane wax and beeswax: It has proved effective at reducing cholesterol levels and for some individuals may be a reasonable natural alternative to the commonly prescribed "statin-type" cholesterol-lowering drugs.


    Health Benefits

    Lower LDL "bad cholesterol" and raise HDL "good cholesterol"

    Most research using the sugarcane-derived form of policosanol has been conducted in Cuba, in both animals and humans. The studies showed that policosanol not only reduced cholesterol levels, but also had positive effects on other cardiac risk factors, through actions such as reducing platelet "clumping" and inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis. A 2002 analysis in the American Heart Journal reviewed more than 60 clinical trials of sugar cane-derived policosanol that involved more than 3000 patients. The authors concluded that policosanol is "a very promising phytochemical alternative to classic lipid-lowering agents such as statins."

    This could be welcome news for some of the 30 million Americans who are currently using the expensive statin drugs. Some studies indicated that policosanol is not only equal to, but may possibly even be somewhat more effective than statins or fibrates in lowering total and LDL cholesterol and increasing "good" cholesterol, or HDL.

    One study showed that patients taking the standard daily 10 mg dose of policosanol experienced a 17% drop in total cholesterol, a 25.6% drop in LDL cholesterol, and a 28.4% rise in HDL cholesterol. These percentages are equal to results obtained with statin medications.

    Some studies confirmed the cholesterol-lowering effects of policosanol in specific groups, including post-menopausal women, the elderly, and people who have both diabetes and heart disease. In addition, policosanol was effective in treating Intermittent claudication , a condition in which poor circulation in the legs causes severe leg pain during exercise. Because policosanol reduces the tendency of blood to clot by reducing the "stickiness" of blood platelets, the tiny particles involved in clotting, it may help prevent cardiovascular disease in a manner similar to aspirin.


    Clinical Studies

    Comparing results from taking 10 mg or 20mg of policosanol

    Policosanol has undergone as many clinical trials as most drugs. In studies on people with high cholesterol at high risk of heart disease, policosanol lowered LDL cholesterol 20% in 6 to 12 weeks at 10 mg/day. Total cholesterol was reduced 15%, and HDL increased 7%-28%.

    Taking 20 mg/day reduced LDL about 28%, total cholesterol about 20%, and elevated HDL 7%-10%. Triglycerides don't respond to policosanol.

    Life Extension

    Policosanol VS. Atorvastatin (Lipitor)

    Diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolaemia increase the risk for coronary heart disease, with type 2 diabetes mellitus being the most prevalent form of diabetes, frequently accompanied by dyslipidaemia. The main goal of dyslipidaemia control in nondiabetic and diabetic patients is to lower elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels.

    Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug, purified from sugarcane wax, with a therapeutic range of 5-20 mg/day, which significantly reduces LDL-C levels.

    Atorvastatin is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor that, across its dose range (10-80 mg/day), has shown significantly greater lipid-lowering effects than all previously marketed statins.

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on lipid profile and platelet aggregation of policosanol and atorvastatin in patients with dyslipidaemia due to type 2 diabetes.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized, single-blind, parallel-group study was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes (fasting glucose </=7 mmol/L and glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA(1c)] <8.5%) and high LDL-C levels (>/=3.0 mmol/L). After 6 weeks on a cholesterol-lowering diet, 40 patients were randomised to policosanol or atorvastatin 10mg tablets taken once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks. Assessments of lipid profile, platelet aggregation tests, safety indicators and adverse events were performed.

    RESULTS: After 8 weeks of therapy,

    policosanol significantly lowered LDL-C by 25.7% and total cholesterol (TC) by 18.2%. Atorvastatin 10 mg/day decreased LDL-C by 41.9% and TC by 31.5%. Atorvastatin was more effective than policosanol in reducing LDL-C and TC

    Policosanol also significantly reduced the TC/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (25.2% and triglycerides (15.6%). Atorvastatin lowered TC/HDL-C by 30.5% and triglycerides by 13.9% the reductions on these variables were similar in the two groups.

    Policosanol, but not atorvastatin, significantly increased HDL-C (11.1%) the effect being significantly different from that of atorvastatin.

    Also, policosanol, but not atorvastatin, significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by arachidonic acid 0.75 and 1.5 mmol/L (39.0% and 33.3%, respectively) and by collagen 0.25 and 0.5 mug/mL (15.7% and 28.5%, respectively); these inhibitions were significantly different from the changes that occurred with atorvastatin.

    Both treatments were well tolerated, with glycemic control being unaffected. Neither drug impaired physical safety indicators or glucose control indicators (fasting glucose and HbA(1c)).

    Atorvastatin significantly increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) [ Most increases in ALT levels are caused by liver damage -WebMD.COM ] and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) [ levels in the blood may rise when those other tissues are damaged -WebMD.COM], while policosanol did not significantly change any safety indicator.

    CONCLUSION: Policosanol (10 mg/day) for 8 weeks was less effective than similar doses of atorvastatin in reducing LDL-C and TC in patients with dyslipidaemia due to type 2 diabetes, but more effective in increasing HDL-C. Both drugs similarly reduced the TC/HDL-C ratio and triglycerides. Policosanol showed additional advantages regarding inhibition of platelet aggregation.

    Pub Med

    Effects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary risk.

    BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and more than one concomitant atherosclerotic risk factor. METHODS: After 6 weeks on a lipid-lowering diet, 179 patients randomly received a placebo or policosanol at doses of 5 followed by 10 mg per day for successive 12-week periods of each dose. Policosanol (5 and 10 mg/d) significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 16.9% and 24.4%, respectively) and total cholesterol (TC; 12.8% and 16.2%, respectively), while significantly increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 14.6% and 29.1%, respectively. RESULTS: Policosanol significantly decreased the ratios of LDL-C to HDL-C (29.1%) and TC to HDL-C (28%) at study completion, although triglycerides remained unchanged. Policosanol , but not the placebo, significantly improved (p .01) cardiovascular capacity, which was assessed using the Specific Activity Scale. No serious adverse experiences occurred in policosanol patients (p < .01), compared with seven adverse experiences (7.9%) reported by placebo patients. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that policosanol is effective, safe, and well tolerated in older hypercholesterolemic patients.

    Life Extension

    Efficacy and tolerability of policosanol in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women.

    This randomized, double-blind, multicenter placebo-controlled study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol , a cholesterol-lowering drug purified from sugar cane wax, in women who had experienced menopause and showed elevated serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels despite a 6-week standard lipid-lowering diet. Thus, 56 eligible patients were randomized to receive placebo or policosanol 5 mg/day for 8 weeks and the dose was doubled to 10 mg/day during the next 8 weeks.

    Policosanol (5 and 10 mg/day) significantly decreased LDL-cholesterol (17.3% and 26.7%, respectively), total cholesterol (12.9% and 19.5%) as well as the ratios of LDL-cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (17.2% and 26.5%) and total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol (16.3% and 21.0%) compared with baseline and placebo. HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly raised by 7.4% at study completion. No significant changes occurred in the lipid profile of the placebo group.

    Life Extension

    A long-term study of policosanol in the treatment of intermittent claudication.

    Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug with concomitant antiplatelet effects. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term effects of policosanol administered to patients with moderately severe intermittent claudication. The study consisted of a 6-week single-blind, placebo-controlled run in phase, followed by a 2-year double-blind, randomized treatment step. Fifty-six patients who met study entry criteria were randomized to receive placebo or policosanol 10 mg twice daily. Walking distances on a treadmill (constant speed 3.2 km/h, slope 10 degrees, temperature 25 degrees C) were assessed before and after 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of treatment. Both groups were similar at randomization.

    After 6 months of therapy, policosanol significantly increased (p < 0.01) the initial claudication distance from 125.9 +/- 8.7 m to 201.1 +/- 24.8 m and the absolute claudication distance from 219.5 +/- 14.1 m to 380.7 +/- 50.2 m. Both variables remained unchanged in the placebo group. These effects did not wear off but improved after long-term therapy, so that final values were 333.5 +/- 28.6 m (initial claudication distance) and 648.9 +/- 54.1 m (absolute claudication distance); both significantly greater than those obtained in the placebo group, which showed values of 137.9 +/- 21.8 m (initial claudication distance) and 237.7 +/- 28.1 m (absolute claudication distance), respectively. At study completion, 21 policosanol and 5 placebo patients attained increases in claudication distance values > 50%. Policosanol , but not placebo, significantly increased the ankle/arm pressure index. In addition, from month 6 up to study completion, the frequency of patients reporting improvement of lower limb symptoms was greater in the policosanol group than in the placebo group. The treatment was tolerated well. The present results demonstrate the long-term usefulness of policosanol therapy to treat patients with intermittent claudication.

    Life Extension

    Alpha Lipoic Acid - 50 mg

    Regulate Blood Sugar  
    Regulate Blood Pressure  
    Metabolic Syndrome  
    Protects The Liver  
    Treat Symptoms Of Nerve Damage

    Alpha Lipoic Acid

    What Is It?

    In the late 1980s, scientists realized that alpha-lipoic acid, a compound initially classified as a Vitamin when it was discovered three decades earlier, possessed potent Antioxidant properties that could prevent healthy cells from getting damaged by unstable oxygen molecules called Free radicals. In fact, this vitamin-like compound has proved to be many times more potent than such old guard antioxidants as vitamins C and E. As a perk, it even recycles C and E (as well as other antioxidants), enhancing their effectiveness.

    Because it dissolves in both water and Fat, this so-called "universal antioxidant" is able to scavenge more wayward free-radical cells than most antioxidants, the majority of which tend to dissolve in either fat or water but not both. Alpha-lipoic acid can reach tissues composed mainly of fat, such as the nervous system, as well as those made mainly of water, such as the heart.

    In addition to functioning as an antioxidant, this hard-working nutrient assists the B vitamins in producing energy from the proteins, carbohydrates, and fats consumed through foods.


    Health Benefits

    Help regulate blood sugar levels in type II diabetes.

    Researchers are finding out that people suffering from type II diabetes may show reduced insulin sensitivity due to a malfunction in the messaging pathways of muscular glucose metabolism. New research has shown that alpha lipoic acid may help to dispose of fatty acids in the body and kick start the glucose metabolism in muscles. In fact, if you combine alpha lipoic acid supplementation with participation in a regular exercise program the benefits are two fold. If you are struggling with diabetic weight gain and blood sugar regulations you may want to ask your doctor about the benefits of alpha lipoic acid.



    Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes

    Overwhelming evidence now suggests that lipoic acid may be critical for not only maintaining optimal blood sugar levels by helping the body to use glucose, but also for supporting insulin sensitivity and key aspects of cardiovascular health, such as endothelial function.

    According to a just-released review of experimental studies, lipoic acid can help relieve several components of metabolic syndrome—a constellation of risk factors that often precedes full-blown types 2 diabetes. This review revealed that lipoic acid reduces blood pressure and insulin resistance, improves the lipid profile, and reduces weight. Scientists are encouraged by lipoic acid’s potential as a therapeutic agent for individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Furthermore, another recent study of 36 patients with coronary artery disease found that a combination of lipoic acid with acetyl-L-carnitine reduced blood pressure and improved endothelial function of the brachial artery. This nutrient pair may therefore be an effective strategy for supporting healthy blood pressure levels, particularly in the context of metabolic syndrome.

    Life Extension Foundation


    Treat symptoms of nerve damage in people with diabetes.

    Alpha-lipoic acid has been used for decades in Europe to counter nerve damage in people with diabetes (types 1 and 2). Known as Diabetic neuropathy, this often very painful condition tends to develop in people who have had uncontrolled diabetes for a long time. The neuropathy may be caused in part by free-radical damage to nerves resulting from poorly regulated blood sugar (glucose). As an antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid helps to block such damage. In addition, because of its effect on glucose metabolism, lipoic acid may improve the glucose-lowering action of insulin (the Hormone that regulates blood sugar). Alpha-lipoic acid may also aid the large percentage (approximately 25%) of people with diabetes who risk sudden death from nerve-related heart damage.



    The Role of Lipoic Acid in Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    Alpha-lipoic acid is a naturally occurring compound that appears to be useful in treating pathologies associated with oxidative stress. For example, alpha-lipoic acid has been safely used for more than 30 years in Europe to prevent and treat complications associated with diabetes, such as protein glycation, abnormal glucose utilization, polyneuropathy, and cataracts. Alpha-lipoic acid can also bind to, or chelate, metals like iron and copper. Exogenously supplied lipoic acid is readily absorbed by cells and tissues and then rapidly reduced to its potent antioxidant form, dihydrolipoate.

    We found that alpha-lipoic acid significantly inhibits both the formation of adhesion molecules and the adherence of monocytes to endothelial cells in culture. However, to our surprise these processes were not influenced by vitamin C or glutathione, suggesting that general oxidative stress does not play a significant role in the activation of human endothelial cells to produce adhesion molecules. Because alpha-lipoic acid also is a good metal chelator, we hypothesized that metals may be involved in the production of adhesion molecules. To test this hypothesis, we added compounds to the cell culture that specifically chelate iron or copper. Our results showed that treatment with metal chelators also inhibits the production of adhesion molecules and monocyte adherence to cultured endothelial cells, thus supporting our hypothesis that the metal-chelating activity of alpha-lipoic acid may be responsible for its salubrious effects on endothelial cell function.



    Protect the liver in cases of hepatitis and other types of liver disease.

    As an antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid shields the liver from potentially harmful cell changes and assists it in flushing toxins from the body. This makes it useful in treating such liver disorders as chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Alpha-lipoic acid supplements have also proved effective in minimizing liver toxicity following exposure to poisons such as heavy metals (including lead) and toxic industrial chemicals such as carbon tetrachloride.


    Combat chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Because it plays a part in cellular energy production, some nutritionally oriented physicians recommend alpha-lipoic acid for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome. While evidence of its effectiveness for this condition is anecdotal, alpha-lipoic acid is a broad-spectrum antioxidant and immune system booster. This means it may be able to play a valuable role in increasing energy and maintaining overall health in chronic fatigue syndrome sufferers.


    Based on evidence from animal and human studies, lipoic acid offers the following essential health benefits:

    * Reduces oxidative stress in the body via powerful antioxidant activity
    * Improves several components of the metabolic syndrome—a combination of risk factors that increases one’s risk for diabetes

    * Reduces blood pressure
    * Reduces insulin resistance
    * Improves the lipid profile
    * Reduces weight

    * Increases insulin sensitivity
    * Improves diabetic neuropathy
    * Protects against cataract formation
    * Improves visual function in glaucoma
    * Helps prevents retinal cell death when combined with vitamin E in retinitis pigmentosa

    * Reduces brain damage after a stroke
    * Prevents bone loss, possibly through an anti-inflammatory effect
    * Removes toxic metals from the body
    * Reduces frequency and intensity of migraines
    * Improves skin texture

    Life Extension Foundation

    Grape Seed Extract (95% OPC) - 35 mg

    Prevent Heart Disease
    Lower High Cholesterol
    Powerful Antioxidant
    Slow Progression of Macular Degeneration and Cataracts
    Protects The Brain
    Stabilizes Blood Sugar
    Lessen Allergy Symptoms

    Grape Seed Extract (Vitis vinifera)

    What Is It?

    As its name implies, grape seed extract is derived from the small seeds (and occasionally the skins) of red grapes--the same kind that are pressed to make wine. Used extensively in Europe, grape seed extract is rich in flavonoids, phytochemicals that have antioxidant properties some consider even greater than the old standbys Vitamin C and vitamin E. Antioxidants are believed to prevent and control numerous ailments by safeguarding cells against the ravages of unstable oxygen molecules called free radicals .

    The most valuable flavonoids in grape seed extract are procyanidolic oligomers (also known as proanthocyanidins), commonly called OPCs. Beyond their antioxidant powers, OPCs are thought to improve blood circulation and help strengthen blood vessels. These actions benefit people with heart disease.


    Health Benefits

    Prevent heart disease

    The risk for heart attack and stroke may be reduced with this potent antioxidant, which is believed to prevent the plaque development that can clog arteries. A recent study of 38 smokers indicates that OPCs may function as effectively as aspirin in keeping blood cells from sticking together and forming blood clots (called an anticoagulant effect). And the OPCs posed no risk of the gastrointestinal irritation or bleeding generally associated with aspirin. Interestingly, another preliminary study using grape seed oil (which is related to grape seed extract) indicates that using 2 tablespoons a day to replace other oils in cooking could increase HDL ("good") cholesterol by 14% and reduce triglycerides by 15% in just four weeks.


    Antioxidants, such as grape seed, help protect blood vessels from damage. Damaged blood vessels can lead to an increased demand on the heart. In several animal studies, a grape seed extract substantially reduced blood pressure.

    University of Maryland Medical Center

    Conducted by UC Davis cardiovascular researchers, the study was the first human clinical trial to assess the effect of grape seed extract on people with metabolic syndrome, a combination of risk factors that increase the risk for heart disease, including high blood pressure, excess abdominal body weight, high blood cholesterol fats and high blood sugar.

    It is estimated that 40 percent of American adults, or 50 million people, have metabolic syndrome.

    The one-month study involved 24 male and female patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. The patients were divided into three groups of eight. The first group received a placebo, while the second and third groups received 150 milligrams and 300 milligrams, respectively, of a new grape seed extract. All participants' blood pressure was automatically measured and recorded for 12 hours after ingestion.

    “Participants in the two groups receiving grape seed extract experienced an equal degree of reduced blood pressure. The average drop in systolic pressure was 12 millimeters. The average drop in diastolic pressure was 8 millimeters,” said the study's lead researcher, C. Tissa Kappagoda, professor of cardiovascular medicine and director of the Preventive Cardiology Program at UC Davis.

    UC Davis Health Systems

    High Cholesterol

    A study tested the effects of a patented grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation (which aids in the formation of "bad" cholesterol) in a group of heavy smokers. Twenty-four healthy male smokers, (aged 50 years or greater) were given either placebo or 2 capsules (75 mg of a grape procyanidin extracts and soy-phosphatidalcholine), twice daily for 4 weeks. "Bad" cholesterol levels (low density lipoprotein or LDL) were lower in those taking the grape seed supplement than those on placebo. The authors concluded that grape seed extract may help prevent cholesterol oxidation and further damage to the cardiovascular system in people who smoke

    University of Maryland Medical Center

    Free Radicals

    Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) are the main active ingredients in grape seed extract that go after “molecular sharks” otherwise known as free radicals. They make up about 90% of grape seed extract. Various versions are all united by a similar chemical structure and possess powerful antioxidant activity 15—20 times stronger than that of vitamin E and 50 times stronger than that of vitamin C. The “super-antioxidant” effects are neatly summed up in a study showing that pretreatment with grape seed extract reduces DNA fragmentation in the brain by a whopping 50% and in the liver by 47% after exposure to a strong chemical.

    Life Extension

    Slow progression of macular degeneration and cataracts

    Grape seed extract improves blood flow in the eye's tiny vessels, where certain eye diseases can cause blockages and impairments that result in vision damage. Cataracts are an example. The extract's antioxidant powers are of particular value in warding off the free-radical damage so frequently cited as the leading cause of macular degeneration.


    Protects the brain

    This research from the University of Alabama shows that grape seed extract normalizes 13 different brain proteins back to youthful levels. Undesirable proteins that impede the brain's ability to make new cells are reduced. (New brain cells are made in certain areas of the brain throughout the human life span. For more information, see “ Reinventing the Brain ,” Life Extension , August 2000.) A protein that makes a type of scar tissue in the brain is also reduced, potentially helping the brain recover from injuries like stroke. The same protein also shows up in certain types of brain tumors and in Alzheimer's disease. Grape seed extract reduces these undesirable proteins, while at the same time increasing other proteins that are lost with age.

    Life Extension

    Metabolism and Type II diabetes

    Another benefit of grape seed extract is that it streamlines metabolism. This is very important for many reasons, but perhaps one of the most compelling is that blood sugar affects longevity, and “longevity genes” are linked to insulin and other factors having to do with metabolism. Type II diabetes has been characterized as “severe insulin resistance,” a condition that causes a form of premature aging. Clinical studies show that grape seed extract stabilizes blood sugar, mobilizes fat, and causes people to eat slightly less.

    Life Extension


    Lessen allergy symptoms

    As a natural antihistamine, grape seed extract may help to control the sneezing, congestion and other hallmarks of an allergic reaction. The extract also inhibits the release of chemicals called prostaglandins that can generate inflammation during an allergic response. Working in concert, the nutrient's antihistamine and anti-inflammatory actions can help to keep at bay such allergic responses as hives, hay fever and eczema.


    L-Citrulline - 100mg

    Increases engergy
    Detoxify and remove ammonia from liver


    What Is It?

    Citrulline is alpha amino gamma ureidovaleric acid. It is formed from ornithine and takes part in the synthesis of urea. It donates one of its nitrogen for the synthesis of urea. Arginine is synthesized from citrulline in presence of aspartic acid, ATP and Mg ++ Citrulline is found in high concentration in the liver. Citrulline is not a component of any major proteins or enzymes.

    In the mitochondria, the ‘power house’ of cells, ammonia combines with carbon dioxide and ornithine to form citrulline. Citrulline is then transported out of the mitochondria into the cytoplasm where it is then converted to yet another amino acid called arginine. Thus citrulline is essential to detoxify and remove ammonia from muscle and liver cells.

    Although not a component of most proteins in the body, citrulline is found in some specialized proteins in the hair, skin and neural cells. It is primarily synthesized from glutamine in the intestines but is also found naturally in trace amounts in some foods.

    Health Vitamins Guide


    Health Benefits


    • The amino acid citrulline is required to detoxify the liver from ammonia, which is a waste product of the body from oxidation.
    • Citrulline promotes energy and assists with the immune system. This unusual amino acid is formed in the urea cycle by the addition of carbon dioxide and ammonia to ornithine.
    • It helps in the production of energy and thus prevents the muscles from fatigue.
    • It also plays an essential role in maintaining the acid base balance in the body.

    Health Vitamins Guide

    Inositol - 135 mg

    Inhibits Human Platelet Aggregation
    Protects Against High Cholesterol  
    Helps With Depression and Panic Disorder



    What Is It?

    A water-soluble sugary substance present in cereals as phytic acid. Inositol is sometimes included in the Vitamin B complex. However, it is not a vitamin because it can be synthesized in the body. It may help to control blood cholesterol levels by promoting the transport of fats to the liver and their utilization once there.

    Oxford University Press Food and Nutrition. A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. Copyright © 1995, 2003, 2005 by A. E. Bender and D. A. Bender. All rights reserved. 



    Health Benefits

    Antiplatelet activity of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6)

    Platelet adhesion to endothelial cells, their aggregation and subsequent release of platelet-derived mediators are key steps in the formation of blood clots and hardening of the arteries. The effect of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) on platelet aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (cells' energy storage) release were simultaneously measured in whole blood obtained from 10 healthy volunteers. The platelets were activated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, or thrombin in the presence or absence of IP6. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) significantly inhibited platelet aggregation in a dose-response manner which were drug-induced. IP6 strongly and significantly reduced drug- induced ATP release for collagen and for thrombin. The results demonstrate that IP6 effectively inhibits human platelet aggregation in vitro, suggesting its potential in reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease.

    Life Extension Foundation


    Protection against high cholesterol

    Choline is also an enormously important nutrient because it helps prevent the buildup of cholesterol. It synergizes with inositol in its function as a lipotropic-a compound that emulsifies fat, keeping it in liquid suspension. As long as cholesterol is emulsified, it is not likely to settle on artery walls or in the gallbladder. In addition, phosphatidyl choline actually helps transport cholesterol and fats so they can be used by the body, or else excreted. If you are watching your cholesterol, you may also be engaging in a serious exercise program. But beware: strenuous exercise such as marathon running may seriously lower the levels of choline. A study of the Boston marathon runners found as much as a 40% decrease in some runners. The reason for this might be the need for choline in the metabolism of fats, which is increased during exercise.

    Life Extension Foundation


    Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial of Inositol Treatment for Panic Disorder

    Jonathan Benjamin, M.D., Joseph Levine, M.D., M.Sc., Mendel Fux, M.D., Alex Aviv, M.D., Daniel Levy, M.D., and R.H. Belmaker, M.D.

    OBJECTIVE: Because they found in an earlier study that inositol, an important intracellular second-messenger precursor, was effective against depression in open and double-blind trials, the authors studied its effectiveness against panic disorder.

    METHOD: Twenty-one patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia completed a double-blind, placebo controlled 4-week, random-assignment crossover treatment trial of 12 g/day of inositol.

    RESULTS: The frequency and severity of panic attacks and the severity of agoraphobia declined significantly more after inositol than after placebo administration. Side effects were minimal.

    CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that inositol's efficacy, the absence of significant side effects, and the fact that inositol is a natural component of the human diet make it a potentially attractive therapeutic for panic disorder. (Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152:1084-1086)

    Geo Cities

    Inositols many benefits

    Inositol works closely with choline as one of the primary components of the cell membrane. It is also needed for growth and survival of cells in bone marrow, eye membranes, and the intestines.

    Inositol appears to be a precursor of the phosphoinosities (compounds that may be important in hormonal action) especially in the brain. Proper action of several brain neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and serotonin, require inositol.

    Inositol encourages hair growth and can help prevent baldness. Like choline, inositol helps to move fat out of the liver, and helps prevent serious liver disorders, as well as disorders involving high cholesterol.

    Serotonin and acetylcholine, two neurotransmitters, both depend upon inositol, and supplementation can therefore assist in the reduction of depression and panic attacks. A reduction in brain inositol levels may induce depression as evidenced by low inositol levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with depression. In a 1-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 28 patients with depression, inositol demonstrated therapeutic results similar to tricyclic antidepressants without the side-effects. Additional studies have revealed that inositol supplementation is an effective treatment in panic and obsessive compulsive disorders.

    Loss of inositol from nerve cells is the primary reason for diabetic neuropathy, so inositol supplementation can assist in improving this condition.

    Inositol also has a prominent calming effect on the central nervous system, so it may be helpful to those with insomnia. Studies on brain waves have shown that it has an effect similar to that of librium or valium. It can gradually lower blood pressure, and can be helpful in cases of schizophrenia, hypoglycemia, and those with high serum copper and low serum zinc levels.

    Intake of caffeine is known to deplete the bodies supply of inositol.


    MSM - 1000 mg

    Relieve Arthritis Symptoms
    Improves Pain

    MSM (methylsulfonylmethane)

    What is it?

    MSM is a chemical found in green plants, grains, fruits, vegetables, and some algae. It is used to treat upset stomach, inflammation (pain and swelling), arthritis and allergies. MSM is also used for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), bacterial infections, some skin problems, and to boost the immune system.

    PDRHealth.com (physicians Desk Reference)


    Health Benefits

    MSM Improves Pain, Function in Arthritis Patients

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) improves pain and physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis pain, according to scientists at the Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine and the Arthritis Health Center in Arizona.

    MSM supplementation not only was well tolerated with no adverse effects, but also was associated with improvements in markers of cardiovascular risk and oxidative stress.

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial tracked 50 adults over the age of 40 who had been diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. The participants were randomly assigned to take either three grams of MSM twice daily or a placebo for 12 weeks. At the study’s end, they were evaluated for osteoarthritis pain, stiffness, physical function, and overall symptoms. Additionally, the investigators evaluated several laboratory markers in the patients.

    The individuals who used MSM experienced significantly decreased arthritis pain and impaired physical function. Supplementing with MSM also markedly improved their ability to perform daily activities. Moreover, the MSM group saw reductions in both serum homocysteine, a cardiovascular disease risk factor, and urine malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative stress.

    MSM thus appears to be a safe, effective remedy for osteoarthritis of the knee, and may also support cardiovascular health. These findings offer hope for the one in three Americans who experience daily joint pain due to arthritis, and are especially timely as several prescription arthritis drugs have recently been taken off the market because they may raise cardiovascular risk.

    Life Extension Foundation


    Relieve arthritis symptoms.

    Those who use MSM supplements contend that it not only helps treat osteoarthritis--the degenerative form of arthritis that wears down cartilage over time--but rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and other autoimmune-related conditions as well.

    Numerous studies have shown that sulfur levels in arthritic joints are lower than in healthy joints. MSM may help by delivering needed sulfur to the afflicted areas. Once in the joints, exactly how MSM works remains unclear: It may exert an anti-inflammatory, analgesic effect similar to that of aspirin.

    It may also help to maintain or repair cartilage, the gel-like substance that cushions joints and that is a key ingredient of connective tissue. In a preliminary, double-blind study of 16 patients with degenerative arthritis, the pateints who took 2,250 mg of MSM daily for six weeks reported an 82% reduction in pain on average.




    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the second most common cause of long-term disability among middle-aged and older adults in the United States. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a popular dietary supplement used as a single agent and in combination with other nutrients, and purported to be beneficial for arthritis. However, there is paucity of evidence to support the use of MSM.

    METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. Fifty men and women, 40-76 years of age with knee OA pain were enrolled in an outpatient medical center. Intervention was MSM 3g or placebo twice a day for 12 weeks (6g/day total). Outcomes included the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index visual analogue scale (WOMAC), patient and physician global assessments (disease status, response to therapy), and SF-36 (overall health-related quality of life).

    RESULTS: Compared to placebo, MSM produced significant decreases in WOMAC pain and physical function impairment. No notable changes were found in WOMAC stiffness and aggregated total symptoms scores. MSM also produced improvement in performing activities of daily living when compared to placebo on the SF-36 evaluation.

    CONCLUSION: MSM (3g twice a day) improved symptoms of pain and physical function during the short intervention without major adverse events. The benefits and safety of MSM in managing OA and long-term use cannot be confirmed from this pilot trial, but its potential clinical application is examined. Underlying mechanisms of action and need for further investigation of MSM are discussed.

    Pub Med


    What Happens When Glucosamine and MSM Are Taken Together?

    In an exciting new study, the combination of glucosamine with methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) was found to be more effective in the maintenance and protection of joints and bones than either agent alone.

    Glucosamine is known as a chondroprotective agent since it helps to protect and restore joint cartilage. MSM is known as an effective natural lubricant that promotes comfort. We now know that the combination of the two is even more powerful than each individual compound.

    In this study, 118 patients with mild to moderate joint discomfort were treated three times daily for 12 weeks with either 500 mg of glucosamine, 500 mg MSM, a combination of both, or an inactive placebo. The patients were evaluated at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The study evaluated patients’ pain, inflammation, and swelling.

    Glucosamine, MSM, and the combination of glucosamine and MSM improved the pain and swelling compared with placebo. After 12 weeks of treatment, the average pain score in the glucosamine-only group dropped from 1.74 to 0.65…a 63% reduction. In the MSM-only group, it fell from 1.53 to 0.74...a 52% reduction. However, in the group taking glucosamine and MSM, the average pain score dropped from 1.7 to 0.36…an astounding reduction of 79%! The researchers also found that the combination therapy had a faster effect on pain and inflammation than either glucosamine or MSM alone.

    The authors of the study concluded that the combination of glucosamine with MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) provides better and more rapid improvement in patients with osteoarthritis than either agent alone.

    Life Extension Foundation

    Glucosamine - 1500 mg

    Relieves Osteo-arthritis Pain
    Slows Joint Damage


    What is it?

    Glucosamine, a sugar produced in the body and found in small amounts in foods, plays an important role in maintaining Cartilage, the gel-like material that cushions joints. When taken as a dietary supplement, glucosamine may help to relieve the pain, stiffness, and swelling of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disorder that affects 12% of the population, in which cartilage has worn down. Rheumatoid arthritis sufferers report improvements with glucosamine supplements as well, as do individuals with other types of joint injuries. Some 70 countries around the world sanction glucosamine as a treatment for individuals with mild to moderately severe osteoarthritis.


    Health Benefits

    Relieve osteoarthritis-related pain, stiffness and swelling.

    The millions of Americans who suffer from osteoarthritis have cartilage that has dried out and gradually broken down over time, cracking and flaking off. When joints are deprived of this cushioning, painful stiffness and inflammation can develop. Glucosamine helps to prevent these symptoms by protecting and reinforcing cartilage. Studies indicate that some arthritis sufferers experience improved range of motion after taking glucosamine. Others report increased overall mobility. And several studies suggest that glucosamine may be as effective in easing arthritic pain and inflammation--and not nearly as irritating to the stomach--as the NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) typically recommended for osteoarthritis. These studies are forcing doctors to reassess the use of acetaminophen as the first-line drug therapy for all patients with knee OA. Furthermore, the documented efficacy of glucosamine for pain relief and function improvement in patients with knee OA, with an effect size that is comparable with that of NSAIDs, requires us to reassess the use of glucosamine as a potential first-line agent at least for patients with knee OA who have mild-to-moderate pain.

    A recent Chinese study of individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee found that while participants taking l,500 mg of glucosamine sulfate daily experienced a similar reduction in symptoms as those given l,200 mg daily of ibuprofen, the glucosamine group tolerated their medication much better.


    Slow and possibly halt osteoarthritis-related damage to joints.

    Glucosamine appears to protect and strengthen the cartilage around joints, particularly in the knees, hips, spine, and hands. In so doing, it may help to prevent further joint damage. And while it can do little to actually restore cartilage that has completely worn away--or reverse joint damage that has already occurred--glucosamine appears to slow the development of mild to moderately severe osteoarthritis. A study that followed 414 postmenopausal women for three years and found that supplementation with glucosamine sulfate prevented the structural changes typical of knee osteoarthritis when compared with Placebo. Recently, another study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that the pain, and loss of functional mobility associated with osteoarthritis lessened 20-25% with a daily dose of 1500 mg of glucosamine sulfate.

    In another trial conducted on 212 subjects with knee osteoarthritis, Belgian investigators reported that glucosamine actually slowed the progression of the disease. Over the course of three years, scientists measured spaces between joints and tracked patients' symptoms. Those on glucosamine showed no further joint narrowing in the knees. Put another way, the glucosamine appeared to protect the shock-absorbing cartilage that cushions the bones. In contrast, the condition of the patients taking the placebo steadily worsened. In an Academic and clinician roundtable review of treatments for osteoarthritis of the hip, glucosamine sulphate was included as one of the 10 key treatment propositions listed under the category of disease- modifying drugs.



    What Happens When Glucosamine and MSM Are Taken Together?

    In an exciting new study, the combination of glucosamine with methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) was found to be more effective in the maintenance and protection of joints and bones than either agent alone.

    Glucosamine is known as a chondroprotective agent since it helps to protect and restore joint cartilage. MSM is known as an effective natural lubricant that promotes comfort. We now know that the combination of the two is even more powerful than each individual compound.

    In this study, 118 patients with mild to moderate joint discomfort were treated three times daily for 12 weeks with either 500 mg of glucosamine, 500 mg MSM, a combination of both, or an inactive placebo. The patients were evaluated at 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The study evaluated patients’ pain, inflammation, and swelling.

    Glucosamine, MSM, and the combination of glucosamine and MSM improved the pain and swelling compared with placebo. After 12 weeks of treatment, the average pain score in the glucosamine-only group dropped from 1.74 to 0.65…a 63% reduction. In the MSM-only group, it fell from 1.53 to 0.74...a 52% reduction. However, in the group taking glucosamine and MSM, the average pain score dropped from 1.7 to 0.36…an astounding reduction of 79%! The researchers also found that the combination therapy had a faster effect on pain and inflammation than either glucosamine or MSM alone.

    The authors of the study concluded that the combination of glucosamine with MSM (methylsulfonylmethane) provides better and more rapid improvement in patients with osteoarthritis than either agent alone.

    Life Extension Foundation


    Glucosamine is different than NSAIDs or COX 2 drugs.

    Glucosamine works in a much different way than NSAIDs or COX-2 drugs because it is natural. Glucosamine builds and maintains cartilage, tendons and other connective tissues in the body by acting as a building block for these materials and inhibiting enzymes that destroy cartilage. When the body does not have an adequate supply of glucosamine, arthritis – most commonly osteoarthritis – can develop. This debilitating condition that afflicts millions of people worldwide is characterized by a breakdown in the “shock absorbers” of the joints, particularly weight bearing ones such as the hip or knee. Glucosamine works by preventing the cartilage destruction, joint pain, swelling and loss of flexibility in a natural way and without the harmful side effects that are associated with NSAIDs or COX-2 drugs.

    Glucosamine cannot cure your arthritis, but it will do wonders for your arthritis and joint pain. Because glucosamine works from within, bathing your joints in a proverbial warm and protective solution and working to heal your joints instead of merely cover up pain, results take a little bit longer than NSAIDs or COX-2 drugs. Once you have achieved relief, however, glucosamine works to protect your joints from further damage while continuing to stave off further damage. Contrasted to glucosamine, there is evidence that many of the NSAIDs can actually work against your arthritic joints, to cause your arthritis pain to become even worse by breaking down your joints.

    Arthritis and Glucosamine Information Center

    Aloe Vera - 100 mg

    Improved Blood Glucose Levels
    Lower Blood Lipids
    Help Ulcerative Colitis

    Aloe Vera

    In addition to topical use in wound or burn healing, internal intake of aloe vera has been linked in preliminary research with improved blood glucose levels in diabetics,[57][58] and with lower blood lipids in hyperlipidaemic patients.[59]] In other diseases, preliminary studies have suggested oral aloe vera gel may reduce symptoms and inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis.[60]

    57 Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Bunyapraphatsara N, Chokechaijaroenporn O (1996). "Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L juice. I. Clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus". Phytomedicine 3: 241–243.

    58 Bunyapraphatsara N, Yongchaiyudha S, Rungpitarangsi V, Chokechaijaroenporn O (1996). "Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L juice. II. Clinical trial in diabetes mellitus patients in combination with glibenclamide". Phytomedicine 3: 245–248.

    59 Nassiff HA, Fajardo F, Velez F. (1993) Effecto del aloe sobre la hiperlipidemia en pacientes refractarios a la dieta. Rev Cuba Med Gen Integr 9:43–51

    60 Langmead L, Feakins RM, Goldthorpe S, et al. (April 2004). "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis". Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 19 (7): 739–47. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2004.01902.x. PMID 15043514.

    Calcium Malate - 809 mg

    Lower High Blood Pressure
    Slow Osteoporosis
    Ease PMS
    Reduce Heartburn
    Fight Insomnia
    Prevent Migraines
    Lower Risk of Kidney Stones


    What Is It?

    Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the human body, has several important functions. More than 99% of total body calcium is stored in the bones and teeth where it functions to support their structure. The remaining 1% is found throughout the body in blood, muscle, and the fluid between cells. Calcium is needed for muscle contraction, blood vessel contraction and expansion, the secretion of hormones and enzymes, and sending messages through the nervous system. A constant level of calcium is maintained in body fluid and tissues so that these vital body processes function efficiently.

    Office of Dietary Supplements

    Health Benefits

    Heart Disease - Blood Pressure

    Some studies have found that calcium supplements can keep blood pressure in check. A few studies even indicate that a diet rich in calcium derived from low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables may be as effective as some prescription medications at lowering high blood pressure. Because calcium helps muscles to contract, it also keeps the heart and blood vessels performing efficiently.



    Maintain healthy bones and prevent or slow osteoporosis.

    Getting enough of this mineral every day, over a lifetime, will help prevent this bone-thinning disease, which can gradually lead to bone fractures, stooped posture, and loss of height. Although the body is best equipped to absorb calcium and establish adequate bone mass (mineral content) before age 35, everyone can benefit from high calcium intake to maintain the health of bones (and teeth). In fact, studies of people over age 65 show that adding calcium-rich foods and calcium supplements to their diet reduces their risk of bone loss and fractures. A three-year study of 176 men and 213 women over age 65 taking either 500 mg of calcium plus 700 IU of vitamin D3 daily found the supplementation moderately reduced bone loss in the femoral neck, spine and total body and reduced the incidence of nonvertebral fractures.


    Ease the symptoms of PMS

    A growing body of research indicates that calcium supplements may relieve irritability, mood swings, depression, and other PMS symptoms. The theory is that low calcium levels contribute to PMS-related hormonal imbalances.


    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 466 women, supplemental calcium (1,200 mg/day) for three menstrual cycles was associated with a 48% reduction in total symptom scores, compared to a 30% reduction observed in the placebo group. Similar positive effects were reported in two double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trials that administered 1,000 mg of calcium daily. A case-control study in women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II found that those who consumed the most calcium (median of 1,283 mg/day) from foods had a 30% lower risk of developing PMS compared to those with the lowest calcium intake (median of 529 mg/day from foods). However, calcium intake from supplements had no effect on PMS in this study.

    Linus Pauling Institute


    Reduce heartburn

    Taking calcium carbonate in the form of antacid tablets such as Tums can neutralize gastric acid and relieve the burning sensation and other symptoms of heartburn. The chewable tablets provide the fastest relief.


    Fight insomnia

    Some people experience sleep problems due to low levels of calcium. Supplementing the diet with calcium as well as magnesium--another nutrient that may be depleted in insomnia sufferers--may ultimately lead to sounder slumber.


    Prevent migraines

    Taking calcium and magnesium on a long-term basis may thwart these debilitating headaches. Both minerals help to maintain healthy blood vessel function throughout the body, including the brain.


    Kidney Stones

    Approximately 12% of the U.S. population will have a kidney stone at some time. Most kidney stones are composed of calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate. Although their cause is usually unknown, abnormally elevated urinary calcium (hypercalciuria) increases the risk of developing calcium stones. Increasing dietary calcium increases urinary calcium slightly, and the rise is more pronounced in those with hypercalciuria. However, other dietary factors such as sodium and protein are also known to increase urinary calcium. A large prospective study that followed men over a period of 12 years found the incidence of symptomatic kidney stones to be 44% lower in men in the highest quintile (1/5) of calcium intake, averaging 1,326 mg/day, compared with men in the lowest quintile of calcium intake, averaging 516 mg/day. Similar results were observed in a large prospective study of women followed over 12 years. A 14-year follow-up analysis of the study in men reported that calcium intake was related to a lower risk of kidney stones in those less than 60 years of age but not in men older than 60 years. Additionally, a prospective study in a cohort of 96,245 younger women, aged 27 to 44 years, found that higher dietary calcium intakes were associated with a lower risk of kidney stones. The authors of these two studies suggest that increased dietary calcium might inhibit the absorption of dietary oxalate and reduce urinary oxalate, a risk factor for calcium oxalate stones. Support for this idea comes from a study in which people ingested oxalate with or without supplemental calcium. Providing 200 mg of elemental calcium along with oxalate significantly reduced both oxalate absorption and excretion. 

    Although calcium stone formers have been advised to restrict calcium intake in the past, a cross-sectional study of 282 patients with calcium oxalate stones found that dietary salt, as measured by urinary sodium excretion, was the dietary factor most strongly associated with urinary calcium excretion. A study of 85 calcium stone-forming patients found that those with low bone mineral density were significantly more likely to have a high salt intake and high urinary sodium excretion, leading the authors to suggest that reduced salt intake should be recommended for calcium stone-forming patients. Findings that calcium stone-forming patients with lower calcium intakes are more likely to have decreased bone mineral density also call into question the therapeutic use of dietary calcium restriction. At present, the only dietary change proven effective in reducing kidney stone recurrence is increasing fluid intake, although no controlled clinical trials of calcium supplementation or restriction have been reported in the literature.

    Linus Pauling Institute

    Magnesium Malate - 435 mg

    Improve Endothelial Dysfunction
    Control High Blood Pressure
    Improve Angina and Irregular Heartbeat (Arrhythmia)
    Improve Diabetes
    Helps Osteoporosis
    Decrease Frequency and Severity of Migraine Headaches
    Relieve PMS (premenstrual syndrome)
    Reduce Irritability, Chronic Depression, and Anxiety

    Magnesium (mâg-nç'zç-əm)

    What Is It?

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body and is essential to good health. Approximately 50% of total body magnesium is found in bone. The other half is found predominantly inside cells of body tissues and organs. Only 1% of magnesium is found in blood, but the body works very hard to keep blood levels of magnesium constant.

    Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, supports a healthy immune system, and keeps bones strong. Magnesium also helps regulate blood sugar levels, promotes normal blood pressure, and is known to be involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. There is an increased interest in the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes.

    Office of Dietary Supplements

    Health Benefits


    Control high blood pressure

    Magnesium is one of the body's most important minerals. It is required as a cofactor in hundreds of enzymatic processes within cells. Magnesium is a major factor in relaxing the smooth muscles within the blood vessels, thereby reducing peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure. In addition, magnesium reduces nerve and muscle excitability, stabilizes cardiac conductivity, and influences neurochemical transmission. Magnesium also affects circulating levels of norepinephrine and the synthesis of serotonin and nitric oxide.

    Indeed, because of magnesium's primary role in blood pressure regulation, for decades scientists have called magnesium “nature's calcium channel blocker” because magnesium directly offsets the constriction of blood vessels caused by calcium. Because drug companies cannot make money from a natural substance like magnesium , they have developed a whole group of drugs called calcium antagonists or calcium channel blockers to do what magnesium does.

    A 1989 study published in the journal Hypertension found that taking 625 mg of magnesium daily produced significant reductions in blood pressure in 21 subjects. A study published in 1993 in the American Journal of Hypertension found that taking supplemental magnesium reduced average systolic blood pressure from 154 to 146 mm Hg and cut average diastolic blood pressure from 100 to 92 mm Hg. The authors commented: “For the first time in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we have demonstrated that oral magnesium results in a significant dose-dependent reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure.”

    A study published in the International Journal of Cardiology in 1996 found that taking 600 mg of magnesium daily reduced systolic blood pressure by an average of 7.6 mm Hg and diastolic pressure by an average of 3.8 mm Hg. In another double-blind, placebo-controlled study published in the British Journal of Nutrition in 1997, subjects who took 411-548 mg of magnesium daily experienced significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

    Life Extension

    Angina and irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia)

    Without adequate levels of magnesium, your heart will suffer; The mineral helps coordinate the activity of the heart muscle as well as the functioning of the nerves that initiate the heartbeat. It also helps keep coronary arteries from spasming, an action that can cause the intense chest pain known as angina. If you have a deficiency of magnesium--often true of those with angina and abnormal heart rhythms--supplements may help. One study of more than 230 people with frequent arrhythmias showed the likelihood of these abnormal rhythms dropped significantly within three weeks after the participants increased the amount of magnesium and potassium in their diets. Several studies have shown administering magnesium intravenously seems to improve arrhythmias. In addition, when given by injection in a hospital setting, magnesium has been found to aid recovery from a heart attack by stabilizing heart rhythm, inhibiting blood clots, and expanding coronary arteries. Some studies even indicate that drinking "hard" water, which is high in magnesium, lowers the risk of death from heart attack.


    Limit complications of congestive heart failure

    Because magnesium can help lower blood pressure and inhibit dangerous arrhythmias, two common complications in those with congestive heart failure, a weakened heart may benefit from extra doses of this mineral.



    Diabetes is a disease resulting in insufficient production and/or inefficient use of insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. Insulin helps convert sugar and starches in food into energy to sustain life. There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes is most often diagnosed in children and adolescents, and results from the body's inability to make insulin. Type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes referred to as adult-onset diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes. It is usually seen in adults and is most often associated with an inability to use the insulin made by the pancreas. Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. In recent years, rates of type 2 diabetes have increased along with the rising rates of obesity.

    Magnesium plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. It may influence the release and activity of insulin, the hormone that helps control blood glucose (sugar) levels. Low blood levels of magnesium (hypomagnesemia) are frequently seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Hypomagnesemia may worsen insulin resistance, a condition that often precedes diabetes, or may be a consequence of insulin resistance. Individuals with insulin resistance do not use insulin efficiently and require greater amounts of insulin to maintain blood sugar within normal levels. The kidneys possibly lose their ability to retain magnesium during periods of severe hyperglycemia (significantly elevated blood glucose). The increased loss of magnesium in urine may then result in lower blood levels of magnesium. In older adults, correcting magnesium depletion may improve insulin response and action.

    Several clinical studies have examined the potential benefit of supplemental magnesium on metabolic control of type 2 diabetes. In one such study, 63 subjects with below normal serum magnesium levels received either 2.5 grams of oral magnesium chloride daily "in liquid form" (providing 300 mg elemental magnesium per day) or a placebo. At the end of the 16-week study period, those who received the magnesium supplement had higher blood levels of magnesium and improved metabolic control of diabetes, as suggested by lower Hemoglobin A1C levels, than those who received a placebo. Hemoglobin A1C is a test that measures overall control of blood glucose over the previous 2 to 3 months, and is considered by many doctors to be the single most important blood test for diabetics.

    Office of Dietary Supplements

    Magnesium improves insulin sensitivity. Magnesium helps correct impaired insulin sensitivity, the fundamental defect that characterizes pre-diabetes and metabolic syndrome. An intracellular enzyme called tyrosine kinase requires magnesium to allow insulin to exert its blood-sugar-lowering effects. In several studies, daily oral magnesium supplementation substantially improved insulin sensitivity by 10% and reduced blood sugar by 37%.

    Life Extension

    Magnesium and osteoporosis

    Bone health is supported by many factors, most notably calcium and vitamin D. However, some evidence suggests that magnesium deficiency may be an additional risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis. This may be due to the fact that magnesium deficiency alters calcium metabolism and the hormones that regulate calcium. Several human studies have suggested that magnesium supplementation may improve bone mineral density. In a study of older adults, a greater magnesium intake maintained bone mineral density to a greater degree than a lower magnesium intake. Diets that provide recommended levels of magnesium are beneficial for bone health, but further investigation on the role of magnesium in bone metabolism and osteoporosis is needed.

    Office of Dietary Supplements

    Migraine headaches

    In a study of 81 patients who received 600 mg trimagnesium dicitrate or placebo daily for 12 weeks, those taking magnesium supplementation reported a 41 percent reduction in frequency of migraines and significant improvement in the severity of migraines.


    Relieve PMS (premenstrual syndrome) discomforts

    Because deficiencies in magnesium have been found in many women suffering from PMS, taking magnesium supplements may help this problem. Menstrual cramping, which is caused by hormone like substances called Prostaglandins made by the endometrial cells, may subside with supplemental doses of magnesium and calcium. Both minerals help to lower the production of prostaglandins. Magnesium's muscle-relaxing properties probably have a beneficial effect on cramping of the uterine muscle as well. Taking magnesium also seems to improve symptoms such as mood changes and fluid retention.


    Reduce emotional irritability in chronic depression, anxiety, and panic disorder

    Magnesium and vitamin B6 are needed for the body to produce Serotonin, an important mood-enhancing brain chemical. When depression or a panic disorder is persistent--and especially when the usual drugs have limited effect--supplementing with magnesium and vitamin B6 may provide significant relief. It may take six weeks or more of treatment for effects to be felt. Taking calcium along with magnesium may also lessen an overreaction to stress that some research has linked to anxiety and panic attacks.


    Vitamin E (Mixed Tocopherols)- 200IU

    Improve Endothelial Dysfunction
    Control High Blood Pressure
    Improve Angina and Irregular Heartbeat (Arrhythmia)
    Improve Diabetes
    Helps Osteoporosis
    Decrease Frequency and Severity of Migraine Headaches
    Relieve PMS (premenstrual syndrome)
    Reduce Irritability, Chronic Depression, and Anxiety

    Vitamin E

    What Is It?

    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in eight different forms. Each form has its own biological activity, which is the measure of potency or functional use in the body. Alpha-tocopherol (α-tocopherol) is the name of the most active form of vitamin E in humans. It is also a powerful biological antioxidant. Vitamin E in supplements is usually sold as alpha-tocopheryl acetate, a form of alpha-tocopherol that protects its ability to function as an antioxidant.

    Antioxidants such as vitamin E act to protect your cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of energy metabolism. Free radicals can damage cells and may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin E has also been shown to play a role in immune function, in DNA repair, and other metabolic processes.

    Office of Dietary Supplements

    Health Benefits

    Prevent or delay heart disease and related complications.

    Preliminary research has led to a widely held belief that vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Researchers have reported that oxidative changes to LDL-cholesterol (sometimes called "bad" cholesterol) promote blockages (atherosclerosis) in coronary arteries that may lead to heart attacks. Vitamin E may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease by limiting the oxidation of LDL-cholesterol. Vitamin E also may help prevent the formation of blood clots, which could lead to a heart attack. Observational studies have associated lower rates of heart disease with higher vitamin E intake.

    A study of approximately 90,000 nurses suggested that the incidence of heart disease was 30% to 40% lower among nurses with the highest intake of vitamin E from diet and supplements. Researchers found that the apparent benefit was mainly associated with intake of vitamin E from dietary supplements . High vitamin E intake from food was not associated with significant cardiac risk reduction.

    A 1994 review of 5,133 Finnish men and women aged 30-69 years also suggested that increased dietary intake of vitamin E was associated with decreased mortality (death) from heart disease.

    Even though these observations are promising, recent randomized clinical trials raise questions about the efficacy of vitamin E supplements in the prevention of heart disease. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study followed almost 10,000 patients for 4.5 years who were at high risk for heart attack or stroke. In this intervention study the subjects who received 265 mg (400 IU) of vitamin E daily did not experience significantly fewer cardiovascular events or hospitalizations for heart failure or chest pain when compared to those who received a placebo (sugar pill). The researchers suggested that it is unlikely that the vitamin E supplement provided any protection against cardiovascular disease in the HOPE study. This study is continuing, with the goal of determining whether a longer duration of intervention with vitamin E supplements will provide any protection against cardiovascular disease.

    Read the HOPE clinical trial done by Jama by clicking here

    The fact that vitamin E by itself failed to demonstrate suppression of lipid peroxidation is not surprising. It has long been known that vitamin E requires other antioxidants in order to recycle itself back into a free radical scavenger. The people who participated in this study were screened to make sure that none of them had taken a multivitamin supplement in the preceding month. During the course of the study, the subjects were not allowed to take any supplement other than the prescribed vitamin E . This meant that there were no other antioxidants available to recycle vitamin E end-products back into effective suppressors of free radicals.

    Office of Dietary Supplements


    Prevent or delay cataracts and macular degeneration.

    Animal studies indicate that vitamin E protects against cataracts, a clouding of the lens of the eye that is a leading cause of blindness in older people. So far most studies have shown only a minor protective effect, although one study of 764 people reported that taking vitamin E supplements cut the incidence of cataracts in half. One recent study in humans found that the risk of late-stage macular degeneration, a potentially blinding eye disorder, was significantly lower in older adults who had high levels of vitamin E in their bloodstream.

    Retard the aging process and boost immune function.

    With age, the immune system becomes less efficient at fighting off microbes and viruses. Part of this decline may be due to low levels of vitamin E in the bloodstream. Some studies have shown improved immune responses in older people who take vitamin E supplements. Vitamin E may also slow the effects of aging by protecting cells from free-radical damage.



    Alpha Tocopherol, Free Radicals And Cardiovascular Disease

    The main function of alpha-tocopherol in humans appears to be that of an antioxidant .  Free radicals are formed primarily in the body during normal metabolism and also upon exposure to environmental factors such as cigarette smoke or pollutants. Fats, which are an integral part of all cell membranes, are vulnerable to destruction through oxidation by free radicals.  The fat-soluble vitamin, alpha-tocopherol, is uniquely suited to intercepting free radicals and preventing a chain reaction of lipid destruction.  Aside from maintaining the integrity of cell membranes throughout the body, alpha-tocopherol also protects the fats in low density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidation. Lipoproteins are particles composed of lipids and proteins, which are able to transport fats through the blood stream. LDLs transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissues of the body. Oxidized LDLs have been implicated in the development of cardiovascular diseases.  When a molecule of alpha-tocopherol neutralizes a free radical, it is altered in such a way that its antioxidant capacity is lost.  However, other antioxidants, such as vitamin C, are capable of regenerating the antioxidant capacity of alpha-tocopherol.

    Several other functions of alpha-tocopherol have been identified, which likely are not related to its antioxidant capacity. Alpha-tocopherol is known to inhibit the actvity of protein kinase C, an important cell signaling molecule, as well as to affect the expression and activity of immune and inflammatory cells. Additionally, alpha-tocopherol has been shown to inhibit platelet aggregation and to enhance vasodilation.

    Linus Pauling Institute

    Vitamin A - 500IU

    Maintain Healthy Eyesight
    Improves Immunity
    Prevention of Restenosis / Occlusion Of Arteries
    Protect Against Gastrointestinal Problems  

    Vitamin A

    What Is It?

    Although vitamin A is probably best known for promoting and maintaining healthy eyesight, it has other important functions as well. One of its major contributions is to improve the body's resistance to infection. It does this in part by maintaining the health of the skin, Mucous membranes, and other surface linings (intestinal tract, urinary tract, respiratory tract) so that harmful bacteria and viruses can't get into your body.

    Another way that vitamin A boosts immunity is by enhancing the infection-fighting actions of the white blood cells called lymphocytes. Vitamin A is also vital to the growth of bones, the division of cells in your body, and to human reproduction.

    Whole Health MD

    Health Benefits

    Vitamin A: a drug for prevention of restenosis/ reocclusion after percutaneous coronary intervention

    The re-establishment of adequate blood flow in a vessel with a reduced lumen due to an atherosclerotic plaque by percutaneous vascular intervention is a well established procedure. However, the long-term outcome of such interventions is negatively influenced by the development of intimal hyperplasia/restenosis. Although extensively researched, this still represents a significant clinical problem. Retinoids, i.e. natural and synthetic derivates of vitamin A, represent a potential therapeutic compound, since they have been shown to influence the vast majority of processes that ultimately lead to reocclusion of the injured vessel. Retinoids exert their effects at the transcriptional level through their nuclear receptors. Targeting multiple processes, i.e. proliferation, migration, extracellular matrix composition and cell differentiation, as well as coagulation/fibrinolysis, should increase their future role in the prevention of restenosis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the diverse effects of retinoids on pathobiological and biological processes activated at sites of vascular injury with particular emphasis on intimal hyperplasia/restenosis after endovascular interventions.

    Pub Med

    Promote healthy vision.

    This nutrient is involved in the proper functioning of the retina of the eye and is essential for the integrity of the mucous membranes surrounding the eyes. It is invaluable in preventing night blindness, and assisting the eye in adapting from bright light to darkness. Vitamin A eyedrops (available over-the-counter) are also effective in treating a disorder known as dry eye, caused by a failure of the tear glands to produce sufficient fluid.

    Whole Health MD


    Ward off infections such as colds, flu, and bronchitis.

    By supporting the healthy maintenance of mucous membranes, vitamin A may be useful for fighting colds and other common infections. In the case of chronic bronchitis, the nutrient encourages healing of damaged lung tissue and may even help to prevent recurrences. In a Brazilian study of men with chronic lung disease, it was found that participants who were given 5,000 IU of vitamin A daily for 30 days could breathe more easily than those who took a Placebo.

    Whole Health MD


    Protect against certain gastrointestinal problems.

    Because it is helpful in protecting the lining of the digestive tract, vitamin A may ease symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease and ulcers. A large study of doctors ages 40 to 75 showed that those who were least likely to suffer from ulcers of the duodenum (a part of the small intestine) were the ones who had the highest intake of vitamin A, mainly from a combination of diet, multivitamins, and supplements.

    Whole Health MD

    Vitamin B-1 - 15mg

    Promotes Proper Function Of The Heart & Nervous System
    Improves Immunity
    Guards Against Congestive Heart Failure  

    Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

    What Is It?

    As the first B Vitamin to be discovered, thiamin can rightly claim the name of vitamin B1. This nutrient is essential to normal growth and development. It participates in converting the carbohydrates from foods into energy and promotes proper functioning of the heart and nervous systems.

    There are still groups at risk of developing a thiamin deficiency: older adults and alcoholics in particular. There are also certain ailments for which extra thiamin can be beneficial. For example, thiamin supplements may help to guard against a thiamin deficiency caused by taking diuretics, a standard treatment for congestive heart failure. Thiamin may lessen numbness and tingling in individuals with diabetes and other disorders that can cause nerve damage. Thiamin has shown promise in treating a number of other disorders, including depression, anxiety, and stress.

    Because it works synergistically with other B vitamins, it's best to get thiamin as part of a B-complex supplement rather than on its own.

    Whole Health MD

    Health Benefits

    Anti-Stress Vitamin And Immune System Enhancer

    Similar to some other B complex vitamins, thiamine is considered an "anti-stress" vitamin because it is believed to enhance the activity of the immune system and improve the body's ability to withstand stressful conditions.

    University of Maryland Medical Center

    Heart failure

    Thiamine may be related to heart failure in two ways. First, low levels of thiamine may contribute to the development of congestive heart failure (CHF). On the flip side, people with severe heart failure can lose a significant amount of weight including muscle mass (called wasting or cachexia) and become deficient in many nutrients. It is not known whether taking thiamine supplements would have any bearing on the development or progression of CHF and cachexia. Eating a balanced diet, including thiamine, and avoiding things that deplete this nutrient, such as high amounts of sugar and alcohol, seems prudent, particularly for those at the early stages of CHF.

    University of Maryland Medical Center

    A third of patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure are deficient in vitamin B1

    A study published in the January 17, 2006, issue of the Journal of the American College of Cardiology reported that approximately one out of three patients hospitalized with heart failure have deficient levels of thiamin, also known as vitamin B1. According to the authors of the report, a deficiency of thiamin manifests as heart failure symptoms and may worsen pre-existing disease. The study is the largest to date of thiamin deficiency among individuals hospitalized with heart failure.

    Mary E. Keith, PhD of St Michael's Hospital in Toronto, Ontario, and colleagues at St Michael's and the University of Toronto, measured thiamin levels among 100 heart failure patients and compared them with those of 50 healthy subjects. They found a deficiency of the vitamin in 33 percent of the heart failure patients compared to 12 percent of those without the disease. Dr Keith commented, "We found that one-third of congestive heart failure patients admitted to our hospital had red blood cell levels of thiamin that were lower than normal and would suggest deficiency. In contrast to some previous studies, we did not find a relationship between the development of thiamin deficiency and the amount or duration of diuretic use and urinary thiamin excretion. In fact, what was important was that a relatively small dose of thiamin from a multivitamin was protective against developing thiamin deficiency."

    Dr. Keith observed that heart failure may increase the body's need for certain nutrients, so that even individuals with healthful diets may still come up short on vitamin B1. "Physicians and the public have exclusively focused on drug therapy to the detriment of at least one of the foundations of good health-appropriate nutrition," she added.

    —D Dye 

    Life Extension Foundation


    Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) - 15mg

    Reduces Free Radical Damage  
    Protects Lung, Brain, And Heart
    Migraine Headache  

    Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

    What Is It?

    Riboflavin is a water-soluble Vitamin which is also known as vitamin B-2 or vitamin G. Riboflavin plays a key role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body.

    Because of riboflavin’s important roles, deficiency of this vitamin can affect many Enzyme systems. Riboflavin deficiency, or ariboflavinosis, shows up as sore throat, redness and swelling of the lining of the mouth and throat, cracks or sores on the outsides of the lips and at the corners of the mouth, anemia, seborrheic dermatitis, and formation of blood vessels in the cornea that interfere with vision.

    Risk factors for riboflavin deficiency include excess alcohol consumption, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, anorexia, lactose intolerance, and light therapy of newborns to treat jaundice.

    Whole Health MD

    Health Benefits

    Reduces Free Radical Damage

    In addition to producing energy for the body, riboflavin also works as an antioxidant by scavenging damaging particles in the body known as free radicals. These particles occur naturally in the body but can damage cell membranes, interact with genetic material, and possibly contribute to the aging process as well as the development of a number of health conditions such as heart disease and cancer. Antioxidants such as riboflavin can neutralize free radicals and may reduce or even help prevent some of the damage they cause.


    University of Maryland Medical Center

    Migraine Headache

    For many migraine sufferers, taking riboflavin regularly may help decrease the frequency and shorten the duration of migraine headaches. It is not clear how riboflavin compares to conventional medications used to prevent migraine headaches, however.

    University of Maryland Medical Center

    Protects Lung, Brain And Heart

    "The anti-atherosclerotic activity of riboflavin may be accounted for, in part, by its role in the metabolism of homocysteine. Elevated serum homocysteine is considered to be an independent risk factor of coronary heart disease." "Riboflavin has been found to protect lung and brain, as well as heart, from cellular oxidative injury"

    PDR (Physicians Desk Reference) for Nutritional Supplements


    Vitamin B-3 (Flush Free Niacin) - 60mg

    Prevent Complications From Heart Disease  
    Decrease Triglycerides  
    Reduction in death and myocardial infarction  
    Ease Symptoms Of Arthritis  
    Helps With Conditions Associated With Type II Diabetes  
    Increases Blood Circulation

    Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

    What Is It?

    Also known as Vitamin B3, niacin has earned a reputation (in supplement form) as a natural cholesterol-lowering agent that often rivals prescription drugs in mild to moderate cases. It may also help to prevent or treat a number of other disorders, from arthritis and depression to diabetes.

    Normally, the body manages to absorb enough niacin from foods to carry out basic functions, working on the cellular level to keep the digestive system, skin and nerves healthy. This vitamin is also critical to releasing energy from carbohydrates and helping to control blood-sugar levels.

    Whole Health MD

    Health Benefits

    Prevent complications from heart disease.

    Niacin may not only lower cholesterol, it may thereby lower a persons risk of cardiac complication overall. As levels of LDL rise, so does a person’s chance of heart attack, stroke, and the disability caused as a result of these conditions. Niacin has been shown to reduce the risk of adverse cardiac event and mortality in patients who suffer from atherosclerosis. In a study of 8, 341 men conducted from 1966-1974 niacin was the only lipid lowering agent shown to reduce the rate of cardiac event and mortality. Niacin has also been shown to work effectively with statin drugs commonly prescribed for this condition. Findings have also shown niacin to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease when combined with exercise and a low-fat diet in an at risk population.

    Whole Health MD

    Reduction in death and myocardial infarction

    In the well-known HDL-Atherosclerosis Treatment Study (HATS), 160 participants were given niacin and simvastatin (Zocor®) or a placebo. Compared to the placebo group, the group receiving niacin and simvastatin experienced a 90% reduction in death and myocardial infarction over three years. In other words, coronary events were nearly eliminated. Although the study sample was small, its results are striking. By comparison, statin drugs alone typically reduce heart attack risk by 25-35%. The 90% reduction achieved in the HATS trial thus is truly remarkable.

    Life Extension Foundation

    Combat Raynaud's disease and other circulatory problems.

    Niacin improves circulation by relaxing arteries and veins, and disorders characterized by circulation difficulties may benefit as a result. In those suffering from Raynaud's disease, for example, niacin's ability to improve blood flow to the extremities may counter the numbness and pain in the hands and feet that occurs when blood vessels overreact to cold temperatures. The calf-cramping and other painful symptoms of Intermittent claudication, another circulation disorder, may lessen under the vessel-relaxing influence of niacin as well.

    Whole Health MD

    Ease symptoms of arthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

    The anti-inflammatory properties associated with niacinamide may help in calming joint Inflammation, a frequent cause of rheumatoid arthritis pain.

    In a double-blind, 12-week study, osteoarthritis sufferers who received niacinamide supplements reported less inflammation and greater joint flexibility than other participants who were given a Placebo. The niacinamide group also required less conventional anti-inflammatory medication to relieve their customary pain and swelling.

    Whole Health MD

    Treat the conditions that contribute to type 2 diabetes.

    Type 2 diabetes is often a condition that also effects those with high cholesterol and heart disease. Until recently, researchers were not certain if niacin was safe for use by those with type 2 diabetes. Current results confirm that niacin is a safe and effective treatment that may benefit the conditions, like high cholesterol and heart disease that exacerbates type 2 diabetes.

    Whole Health MD


    Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid ) - 55mg

    Help Control Cholesterol Levels
    Manage stress from psychological strain, migraines, chronic fatigue syndrome, smoking and alcohol cessation
    Reduce certain allergy symptoms and asthmatic reactions

    Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid)

    What Is It?

    Pantothenic acid is a B vitamin that is used as a supplement to treat acne, osteoarthritis, Pantothenic acid deficiency, rheumatoid arthritis, and wounds. It is also used for inflammatory bowel disease, chronic fatigue syndrome, lowered blood cell production, mitochondrial dysfunction, infection, adrenal (gland) dysfunction, stress disorders, allergies, liver problems, and to support the immune system.

    PDR (Physicians Desk Reference)

    Health Benefits

    Control cholesterol levels

    The body converts pantothenic acid into a chemical called pantethine. When taken as a supplement, pantethine appears to lower the amount of lipids in the blood. A person with high cholesterol may see their level of total of cholesterol--including LDL ("bad") cholesterol lower --while at the same time increasing HDL ("good") cholesterol levels.



    Oxford University Press

    A water-soluble vitamin, and a member of the B complex. Pantothenic acid is a constituent of coenzyme A which plays an essential part in the intermediate stages of carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Pantothenic acid also plays a role in antibody formation, detoxification of drugs, and the conversion of cholesterol to anti-stress hormones. Some studies indicate that pantothenic acid supplements improve physical fitness, but it is generally agreed that more detailed experimentation is needed to confirm these effects.

    Deficiencies do not cause any specific disease in humans but can lead to a condition known as ‘burning feet syndrome’ when the feet ache, burn, and throb. Other deficiency symptoms include a wide range of mental and physiological disorders, among them headaches, depression, arm and leg cramps, respiratory infections, digestive disorders, and irregularities of heartbeat.

    Answers.com - Health


    Manage stress from psychological strain, migraines, chronic fatigue syndrome, and smoking and alcohol cessation

    The body relies on pantothenic acid to help the adrenal glands produce stress hormones during times of both psychological and physical strain. This property makes it potentially useful for dealing with emotional upset, depression, anxiety, migraines, chronic fatigue, and withdrawal from alcohol or tobacco. It is commonly taken as part of a vitamin B complex supplement for these purposes. In addition, pantothenic acid may reduce the occurrence of migraines by participating in the production of the brain chemical Serotonin; some research indicates that serotonin is present at abnormally low levels in migraine sufferers.



    Reduce certain allergy symptoms and asthmatic reactions

    Allergy sufferers may find pantothenic acid beneficial for controlling the nasal congestion that can develop during an allergic reaction. The vitamin is a smart choice during allergy season, when it can be safely taken along with more conventional remedies. An asthmatic response initiated by seasonal allergies may similarly improve with pantothenic acid.


    Vitamin B-6 - 50mg

    Protect Against Heart Disease
    Lowers Homocysteine    
    Important For Optimal Immune System Function
    Ease Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    Counter Female Infertility
    Fight Asthma
    Treat Chronic Dizziness
    Lessen Tinnitus (Ringing In The Ears)
    Slow Progression of Parkinson's Disease

    Vitamin B6

    What Is It?

    Technically an umbrella term used to describe three B vitamins (pyridoxine, pridoxal, pyridoxamine), vitamin B6 partakes in no fewer than 100 chemical reactions throughout the body. It functions primarily as a coenzyme, working along with other enzymes to speed up chemical reactions in cells.

    Vitamin B6 helps manufacture the building blocks of proteins known as amino acids. It also takes part in producing brain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) such as serotonin , in releasing energy stored in cells, and in manufacturing red blood cells. Vitamin B6 also helps to keep hormones in balance and the immune system functioning properly.

    Incredibly, government surveys indicate that one-third of adults are deficient in this key nutrient. The elderly, pregnant or nursing women, oral contraceptive users, and smokers are particularly at risk for a deficiency.


    Health Benefits

    Heart Disease

    Several large observational studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin B6 intake or status with increased blood homocysteine levels and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A large prospective study found the risk of heart disease in women who consumed, on average, 4.6 mg of vitamin B 6 daily was only 67% of the risk in women who consumed an average of 1.1 mg daily .

    Linus Pauling Institute

    The link between vitamin B6 and heart disease also was compelling. Women with the highest intake of vitamin B6 had a 51 percent lower incidence of coronary heart disease than those who consumed the lowest amount of vitamin B6 . For each 2 mg increase in B6 intake, there was a 10 percent decrease in coronary heart disease risk.

    Life Extension


    Immune function

    Low vitamin B6 intake and nutritional status have been associated with impaired immune function, especially in the elderly. Decreased production of immune system cells known as lymphocytes, as well as decreased production of an important immune system protein called interleukin-2, have been reported in vitamin B6 deficient individuals. Restoration of vitamin B6 status has resulted in normalization of lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production, suggesting that adequate vitamin B6 intake is important for optimal immune system function in older individuals. However, one study found that the amount of vitamin B6 required to reverse these immune system impairments in the elderly was 2.9 mg/day for men and 1.9 mg/day for women; these vitamin B6 requirements are higher than the current RDA.

    Linus Pauling Institute

    Prevent diabetic nerve damage (neuropathy).

    People with diabetes are at risk of developing nerve damage. Supplemental vitamin B6 may guard against this complication.

    Ease carpal tunnel syndrome.

    People who suffer from this painful wrist and hand disorder are often deficient in vitamin B6. Supplements may not only decrease the Inflammation that causes complications but also improve circulation to the compromised areas. In addition, vitamin B6 may boost the production of the Neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), which helps to control pain.

    Counter female infertility.

    Along with other B vitamins, vitamin B6 contributes to the health and proper functioning of the female reproductive system.

    Fight asthma.

    According to various studies, vitamin B6 holds promise for decreasing wheezing and other bothersome asthma symptoms. It's particularly recommended for asthma sufferers taking the prescription drug theophylline, which depresses natural levels of the vitamin B6 component known as pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P).

    Treat chronic dizziness.

    Vitamin B6 supplements may be of use in treating chronic dizziness caused by a nerve disorder or decreased blood flow to the brain or inner ear.

    Lessen tinnitus (ringing in the ears).

    This condition is probably caused by a nerve malfunction in the brain. Because vitamin B6 positively affects the nervous system, it may improve the health of the nerves leading to the inner ear and thus minimize the discomforts of tinnitus.

    Slow the progression of Parkinson's disease.

    People with this disease lack dopamine, a brain chemical that transmits impulses from nerve to nerve. They are also often deficient in vitamin B6. Interestingly, supplements of the vitamin work to increase the production of dopamine. Consult your doctor for guidance before starting on vitamin B6 supplements if you're already taking the prescription drug levodopa (L-dopa) for this disease, however, because the vitamin could prevent the medication from working properly.


    Vitamin B-12 - 50mcg

    Lower Blood Pressure
    Lowers Homocysteine  
    Protect Against Alzheimer's and Dementia
    Ward Off Depression
    Prevent Neural Tube Defects

    Vitamin B12

    What Is It?

    Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. After the body uses these vitamins, leftover amounts leave the body through the urine. Typically, water-soluble vitamins can not be stored by the body. Vitamin B12 is special, because the body can store it for years in the liver. Because of this, a vitamin B12 deficiency is very rare.

    Vitamin B12, like the other B vitamins, is important for metabolism . It helps in the formation of red blood cells and in the maintenance of the central nervous system .

    Medline Plus

    Health Benefits

    Heart Disease

    Vitamin B12 , aids the body in processing homocysteine, an amino acid like compound that, at elevated levels, increases the risk for heart disease and other vascular disorders.


    Some evidence indicates that vitamin B 12 deficiency is a major cause of elevated homocysteine levels in people over the age of 60. Two studies found blood methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels to be elevated in more than 60% of elderly individuals with elevated homocysteine levels. An elevated MMA level in conjunction with elevated homocysteine, in the absence of impaired kidney function, suggests a vitamin B12 deficiency. Thus, it is important to evaluate vitamin B12 status as well as kidney function in older individuals with elevated homocysteine levels prior to initiating homocysteine-lowering therapy.

    Linus Pauling Institute

    Even moderately elevated levels of homocysteine in the blood have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke. During protein digestion, amino acids, including methionine, are released. Homocysteine is an intermediate in the metabolism of methionine.

    Linus Pauling Institute

    Although oral B12 did not reduce homocysteine in every case, when it did, the results were dramatic. Some of the people in the study had homocysteine levels as high as 175 micromoles per liter (the optimal safe range for homocysteine is under 6). In the case of one patient, 2,000 micrograms of oral B12 for four months reduced their homocysteine from 113.4 micromoles per liter to 8.2. Injected B12 also significantly reduced homocysteine - the main difference being that the injected version worked faster.

    Interestingly, some of the patients did not respond to supplemental vitamin B12. It was discovered that they were also deficient in folate (folic acid), and until folate was replaced, their homocysteine remained elevated. Vitamin B12 and folate work synergistically in the chemical reactions that recycle homocysteine back to methionine in the methylation cycle.

    Life Extension

    Alzheimer's and Dementia

    B12-deficiency can cause a dementia that looks exactly like Alzheimer's disease. And the connection between Alzheimer's disease itself is characterized by brain deficiencies of both vitamin B12 and the methylating factor, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). A new study from Germany correlates B12 deficiency in Alzheimer's patients with two personality changes—irritability and disturbed behavior. B12 deficiency and mental illness has been documented repeatedly. According to the latest research, as much as 30% of hospitalized mental patients may be deficient in the vitamin. And what's disturbing is that studies repeatedly show that the deficiency is frequently missed by standard blood tests. For example, a recent study from Germany shows that out of 67 hemodialysis patients who were B12-deficient by the measurement of methylmalonic acid (it goes up when B12 goes down), only two of them were deficient by a standard blood test. Looking at the data, one can't help but wonder how many people with B12 deficiency get treated for mental illness when what they should get is a vitamin!

    Life Extension


    Observational studies have found as many as 30% of patients hospitalized for depression are deficient in vitamin B12. A cross-sectional study of 700 community-living, physically disabled women over the age of 65 found that vitamin B12 deficient women were twice as likely to be severely depressed as non-deficient women. A population-based study in 3,884 elderly men and women with depressive disorders found that those with vitamin B12 deficiency were almost 70% more likely to experience depression than those with normal vitamin B 12 status. The reasons for the relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and depression are not clear but may involve S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). Vitamin B12 and folate are required for the synthesis of SAMe, a methyl group donor essential for the metabolism of neurotransmitters whose bioavailability has been related to depression. This hypothesis is supported by several studies that have shown supplementation with SAMe improves depressive symptoms. Because few studies have examined the relationship of vitamin B12 status and the development of depression over time, it cannot yet be determined if vitamin B12 deficiency plays a causal role in depression. However, due to the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in older individuals, it may be beneficial to screen for vitamin B12 deficiency as part of a medical evaluation for depression.

    Linus Pauling Institute

    Neural tube defects

    Neural tube defects (NTD) may result in anencephaly or spina bifida , devastating and sometimes fatal birth defects. The defects occur between the 21st and 27th days after conception, a time when many women do not realize they are pregnant. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated 60% to 100% reductions in NTD cases when women consumed folic acid supplements in addition to a varied diet during the month before and the month after conception. Increasing evidence indicates that the homocysteine -lowering effect of folic acid plays a critical role in lowering the risk of NTD. Homocysteine may accumulate in the blood when there is inadequate folate and/or vitamin B12 for effective functioning of the methionine synthase enzyme . Decreased vitamin B12 levels in the blood and amniotic fluid of pregnant women have been associated with an increased risk of NTD, suggesting that adequate vitamin B12 intake in addition to folic acid may be beneficial in the prevention of NTD. 

    Linus Pauling Institute

    Vitamin C - 1000mg

    Reduce Cardiovascular Deaths
    Support Endothelial Function And Protect The Heart
    Reduce Risk Of Heart Attack
    Improve Cholesterol Levels
    Speed Wound Healing
    Reduce Duration of Colds and Flu
    Protect Against Cataracts
    Relieve Allergies, Eczema, Sinusitis, And Asthma
    Improve Memory
    Combat Effects Of Aging

    Vitamin C

    What Is It?

    The health benefits of vitamin C are abundant and varied, but it's probably best known as a cell protector, immunity booster, and powerful Antioxidant. The body's ligaments, tendons, and collagen (a protein found in connective tissues) rely on the presence of vitamin C to stay strong and healthy. Like all antioxidants, vitamin C counters the effects of cell-damaging molecules called free radicals. As an added benefit, it even helps the body recycle other antioxidants.


    Health Benefits

    Reduces cardiovascular deaths

    A 10-year study from UCLA showed that in a population of more than 11,000 US adults aged 25-74, men who took 800 mg of vitamin C daily lived about six years longer than men who took only 60 mg of vitamin C daily. Even after controlling for smoking, education, race, diseases, and other factors affecting survival, higher vitamin C intake in men still predicted lower mortality. Increased vitamin C intake was likewise associated with greater longevity in women. Higher vitamin C intake reduced cardiovascular deaths by 42% in men and 25% in women.

    Vitamin C Supports Endothelial Function and Protects the Heart

    Mounting evidence, for example, associates higher vitamin C levels with protection against cardiovascular disease, America's leading cause of premature death. Vitamin C may help support the heart and vascular system by protecting against endothelial dysfunction, preventing heart attacks, and countering the dangerous oxidation of blood lipids.

    Scientists now know that one of the instigating factors in cardiovascular disease is the insidious process known as endothelial dysfunction, in which blood vessel walls become stiffer and less able to dilate in response to the body's need for increased blood flow.

    While elevated levels of the amino acid homocysteine hasten endothelial dysfunction, scientists have discovered that pretreatment with vitamin C (1000 mg daily for one week) reduces oxidative stress and thus protects the delicate vascular endothelium from the damaging effects of elevated homocysteine.

    Vitamin C Status Tied to Heart Attack Risk

    Several recent studies suggest that ensuring optimal vitamin C status not only protects against cardiovascular disease, but also greatly lessens the risk of suffering a life-threatening heart attack.

    For example, in a Finnish study of middle-aged men without evidence of pre-existing heart disease, men who were deficient in vitamin C were 3.5 times more likely to suffer heart attacks compared to those who were not deficient in the vitamin, even after adjusting for smoking and other pertinent risk factors. This led the researchers to propose that vitamin C deficiency, as assessed by low plasma concentration, is a risk factor for heart attack.

    Life Extension


    Increase resistance to heart disease (and Angina) by improving cholesterol levels.

    Several studies have linked the presence of low levels of vitamin C to a greater risk of angina and heart attacks in people with existing heart disease. Research also indicates that, when taken with vitamin E, vitamin C helps protect LDL ("bad") cholesterol from oxidation, thus preventing plaque buildup in coronary arteries. Vitamin C may also boost blood levels of HDL ("good") cholesterol; studies are ongoing to provide definitive evidence of this action.

    Speed wound healing and minimize the effects of bruising.

    Vitamin C helps the body to repair and maintain itself by reinforcing cell walls and helping to strengthen tiny blood vessels called capillaries. It further accelerates healing by inhibiting Inflammation.

    Lessen the severity and duration of colds and flu.

    In a 1995 review of studies investigating the effect of vitamin C on colds, researchers concluded that doses of 1,000 to 6,000 mg a day at the onset of symptoms reduced a cold's duration by 21%, and shortened its duration by one day on average. Taking vitamin C doesn't prevent colds, however.

    Protect against cataracts.

    Vitamin C may keep the lens of the eye from being damaged by cigarette smoke and ultraviolet (UV) light, both types of exposure linked to cataract formation. One study showed that women who took vitamin C supplements for 10 years or more had a 77% lower risk of "lens opacities," the beginning stage of cataracts, than women who didn't use supplements.

    Relieve allergies, eczema, sinusitis, and asthma.

    Vitamin C is a natural antihistamine capable of blocking the effect of inflammatory substances some people produce in response to allergens such as pollen and pet dander. Allergies are often an underlying cause of sinusitis and may also trigger the intensely itchy rashes associated with eczema. Vitamin C is frequently recommended with other antioxidants such as flavonoids for sinusitis. Numerous studies have shown that vitamin C helps prevent or improve asthmatic symptoms as well; asthma sufferers are often deficient in this and other vitamins. Vitamin C has also been shown to help exercise-induced asthma attacks, in some cases thwarting an attack if taken in an adequate dose right before a workout. Adults with exercise-induced asthma may want to experiment with doses from 500 mg to 5000 mg.

    Improve memory.

    As an antioxidant, vitamin C plays a key role in maintaining healthy nerve cells, and is often taken in combination with vitamin E, mixed carotenoids, ginkgo biloba, and coenzyme Q-10 to help prevent memory loss. Several observational studies and one clinical controlled study have found that vitamin C may be beneficial in preventing the development of Alzheimer dementia.

    Combat the effects of aging and extend life.

    Used in combination with other antioxidants, such as vitamin E and flavonoids, vitamin C may combat the deteriorative effects of aging (such as wrinkles) caused by free-radical damage. It may also help you live longer. In one study, men who took more than 300 mg of vitamin C a day (from food and supplements) lived longer than men who consumed less than 50 mg a day.


    Vitamin D-3 - 2000 IU

    Protect Against Heart Failure
    Lower High Blood Pressure
    Help Prevent Diabetes
    Prevent Osteoporosis
    Improve Immunity
    Protect Against Infection
    Protect Against Multiple Sclerosis

    Vitamin D-3 (cholecalciferol)

    What Is It?

    Vitamin D is called the sunlight vitamin because the body produces it when the sun's ultraviolet B (UVB) rays strike the skin. It is the only vitamin the body manufactures naturally and is technically considered a hormone. Essential for building strong bones and teeth, vitamin D also helps to strengthen the immune system.

    While just 10 to 15 minutes in the summer sun a few days a week supplies adequate amounts of vitamin D, those who can't get out in the sun may need a supplement. In winter, people in northern climates who don't get enough sun may also need additional amounts of the vitamin. Unfortunately, the body's ability to manufacture vitamin D appears to decline with age, so older adults may need to get more vitamin D through diet or supplements, whether they're exposed to sunlight or not.

    Surprisingly, even younger adults may have inadequate stores of this nutrient: In one study involving almost 300 patients of varying ages who were hospitalized for different types of ailments, 57% were found to have low levels of vitamin D.

    Vitamin D is essential for the efficient utilization of calcium by the body

    Linus Pauling Institute

    Health Benefits

    Heart failure

    The heart's inability to pump enough blood to meet the body's requirements—is a leading cause of death in industrialized nations. Scientists believe that elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines may contribute to heart failure, and that vitamin D may offer heart-protective benefits by quelling these inflammatory mediators.

    In a recent double-blind clinical trial, 123 patients with congestive heart failure were randomly assigned to receive either vitamin D3 (50 mcg [2000 IU] per day) plus 500 mg of calcium or placebo plus 500 mg of calcium. Over the nine months of the study, patients who supplemented with vitamin D had greatly increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Scientists believe that by reducing the inflammatory environment in congestive heart failure patients, vitamin D3 holds promise as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic for people suffering from heart failure.

    A 2005 study reported on the use of vitamin D and other nutrients in chronic heart failure. In a randomized trial, 28 chronic heart failure patients supplemented with 200 IU of vitamin D, 150 mg of coenzyme Q10, minerals, antioxidants, and B vitamins or placebo for nine months. The supplemented patients had an impressive 17% decrease in the heart's left ventricular volume, which typically is increased in chronic heart failure and adds to the work required of the already-fatigued heart muscle. By contrast, left ventricular volume increased 10% in the placebo group. Supplemented patients also had a modest increase in quality-of-life scores. These findings indicate that vitamin D supplementation, in combination with coenzyme Q10, vitamins, and minerals, can offer important support for people with chronic heart failure.

    Life Extension

    Reduce systolic blood pressure

    The effects of 8 weeks of supplementation with vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) and calcium on blood pressure and biochemical measures of bone metabolism were studied. The sample consisted of 148 women. Sixty subjects (81%) in the vitamin D3 and calcium group compared with 35 (47%) subjects in the calcium only group showed a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 5 mm Hg or more. No statistically significant difference was observed in the diastolic blood pressures of the calcium-treated and calcium- plus vitamin D3 -treated groups.

    A short-term supplementation with vitamin D3 and calcium is more effective in reducing systolic blood pressure than calcium alone. Inadequate vitamin D3 and calcium intake could play a contributory role in the pathogenesis and progression of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in elderly women.

    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

    Vitamin D May Help Prevent Diabetes

    Vitamin D supplementation may reduce susceptibility to type II diabetes by slowing the loss of insulin sensitivity in people who show early signs of the disease.  Researchers studied 314 adults without diabetes and gave them either 700 IU of vitamin D and 500 mg of calcium daily or a placebo for three years. Among subjects who had impaired (slightly elevated) fasting glucose levels at the study's onset, those taking the active supplement had a smaller rise in glucose levels over three years than did the controls, as well as a smaller increase in insulin resistance. The researchers concluded that for older adults with impaired glucose levels, supplementing with vitamin D and calcium may help avert metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes.

    Life Extension

    Prevent osteoporosis

    The body cannot absorb calcium from food or supplements without an adequate intake of vitamin D. If calcium levels in the blood are too low, the body will steal the mineral from the bones and supply the muscles and nerves with the amount they need. Over time, the loss of calcium in the bones can lead to osteoporosis, a disease in which bones become porous and prone to fractures. After menopause, women are particularly at risk for developing this condition. Vitamin D taken along with calcium plays a critical role in maintaining bone density.

    In a study of 176 men and 213 women over age 65 done at Tufts University, those who took 500 mg of calcium and 700 IU of vitamin D daily for three years experienced a decrease in bone density loss. Moreover, the incidence of fractures was cut in half. In another study, of 3,270 healthy elderly French women, a daily dietary supplement of 1,200 mg calcium plus 800 IU of vitamin D lowered the incidence of hip fractures by 43% in just two years. Considerable experimental and epidemiologic evidence now exists to support the need for calcium and vitamin D supplementation to reduce the risk of fracture and osteoporosis. Several more recent studies also have found that a daily dose of 800 IU of vitamin D, or 100,000 IU given three times a year, reduces the frequency of both falls and fractures.



    A recent paper presented persuasive evidence that seasonal infections such as influenza may actually be the result of decreased vitamin D levels, not of increased wintertime viral activity, which has been the longstanding conventional wisdom. This makes sense, because vitamin D receptors are present on many of the immune system cells responsible for killing viruses and deadly bacteria, and the vitamin—which is less environ-mentally available in the winter—appears to be a requirement for proper activation of these cells.

    Life Extension

    Protect against infection

    A study by researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine shows that fluctuations in Vitamin D3 levels control the body's innate immune response, affecting a skin wound's ability to heal.

    "Our study shows that skin wounds need vitamin D3 to protect against infection and begin the normal repair process," said Gallo. "A deficiency in active D3 may compromise the body's innate immune system which works to resist infection, making a patient more vulnerable to microbes."

    Gallo's lab discovered that an antimicrobial peptide called cathelicidin is produced by wounds and is necessary to fight infections. Recently, several studies have begun to link vitamin D to cathelicidin. Researchers focused on white blood cells called macrophages that work to destroy invading bacterial microbes. Macrophages contain toll-like receptors that identify the invaders; when the receptors sense the presence of bacteria, they trigger cathelicidin production.

    Gallo's team has now discovered that injury stimulates skin cells called keratinocytes, which surround the wound, to increase the production of vitamin D3 and that this in turn increases the expression of genes (CD14 and TLR2) that detect microbes. These genes, together with active vitamin D3, called 1,25D3, then lead to more cathelicidin. In both mice and humans, a deficiency in cathelicidin allows infections to develop more readily

    Science Daily

    Protect against multiple sclerosis

    In a population study, women who were found to have the highest vitamin D intake via supplements (400 IU or higher per day) were found to be 40 percent less likely to have MS than women not taking vitamin D supplements. Additional population research in over 7 million people showed that higher levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with significantly lower risk of developing MS. In white men and women, for every 50 nmol/L increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, there appears to be a 41 percent decrease in MS risk. However, in black and Hispanic men and women 25-hydroxyvitamin levels were not associated with MS risk.


    Selenium - 25mcg

    Protect Against Cardiovascular Diseases, Atherogenesis, and Metabolic Syndrome
    Protect Against Heart Attack And Stroke   
    Antioxidant Power  
    Guard against cataracts and macular degeneration
    Help Relieve Symptoms Of Athritis
    Promote Healing Of Cold Sores


    What Is It?

    The trace Mineral selenium makes its way into our bodies because it is contained in certain foods. Over time, it becomes part of nearly every cell, with particularly high concentrations in the kidneys, liver, pancreas, spleen, and testes.

    Only over the past two decades have scientists begun to understand just what a vital role selenium plays in numerous biological functions. Perhaps its most crucial job is to prevent disease.

    Selenium has many tasks to perform in the body. It helps to boost the immune system and fight off infection, providing a general increase in the body's defense against dangerous bacteria, and viruses. On a basic cellular level, every cell in the body needs a particular Hormone from the thyroid gland that selenium helps to convert to an active form.

    Perhaps the most famed use of selenium in supplement form is as an Antioxidant; it helps to mop up dangerous molecules known as Free radicals that can damage and alter healthy cells. It has also been recommended for staving off the effects of aging.



    Health Benefits

    Cardiovascular Diseases, Atherogenesis, and the Metabolic Syndrome

    The exciting evidence for selenium’s effectiveness in preventing inflammatory diseases has led scientists to explore its protective effects against other conditions involving oxidative damage. Many of these conditions were previously considered to be “natural” consequences of aging. With the discovery that atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity, and type II diabetes—components of the so-called “metabolic syndrome—are all caused or exacerbated by oxidant stress, selenium may prove to have a valuable preventive and therapeutic role in these conditions as well.

    Patients with acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) have been shown to have lower levels of selenium in their plasma, red blood cells, and urine compared to control subjects. Selenium concentrations are also low in some patients with endothelial dysfunction, the inflammatory-mediated precursor to atherosclerosis and hypertension. Supplementation with selenium has been shown to reverse specific chemical markers of endothelial dysfunction. In addition, selenium may help protect against congestive heart failure.

    Oxidative stress is both a cause and consequence of chronic renal failure. Patients who suffer form this condition experience exceptionally high levels of cardiovascular disease and death, as well as impaired immune function. Selenium levels are markedly reduced in these patients. Selenium deficiency is especially pronounced in patients on kidney dialysis, who lose considerable amounts of selenium during the dialysis process. This renders them even more vulnerable to further oxidative damage to their cardiovascular systems. Selenium supplementation in dialysis patients has been used successfully to reduce oxidative stress, and has actually been shown to improve immune function as well.

    Life Extension Foundation


    Protect against heart attack and stroke

    Selenium may decrease the "stickiness" of the blood, lessening its tendency to clot and thus reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke. In addition, the mineral may encourage healthy heart function by increasing the proportion of HDL ("good") cholesterol to LDL ("bad") cholesterol. People who have already had a heart attack or a stroke, or who smoke, appear to benefit the most from selenium.


    Antioxidant Power

    Some population surveys have suggested an association between lower antioxidant intake and a greater incidence of heart disease. Evidence also suggests that oxidative stress from free radicals, which are natural by-products of oxygen metabolism, may promote heart disease. For example, it is the oxidized form of low-density lipoproteins (LDL, often called "bad" cholesterol) that promotes plaque build-up in coronary arteries. Selenium is one of a group of antioxidants that may help limit the oxidation of LDL cholesterol and thereby help to prevent coronary artery disease. Currently there is insufficient evidence available to recommend selenium supplements for the prevention of coronary heart disease; however, the SU.VI.MAX study mentioned earlier is looking at the effects of antioxidant nutrients such as selenium on heart disease.

    Office Of Dietary Supplements


    Guard against cataracts and macular degeneration.

    Selenium may help prevent the two most common causes of impaired vision and blindness in older Americans--cataracts and macular degeneration--by providing antioxidant actions that fight free radicals. It's these free radicals, after all, that often damage the eye's lens (the site of cataracts) and the macula at the center of the eye's retina (the site of macular degeneration).


    Selenium and arthritis

    Surveys indicate that individuals with rheumatoid arthritis, a chronic disease that causes pain, stiffness, swelling, and loss of function in joints, have reduced selenium levels in their blood. In addition, some individuals with arthritis have a low selenium intake.

    The body's immune system naturally makes free radicals that can help destroy invading organisms and damaged tissue, but that can also harm healthy tissue. Selenium, as an antioxidant, may help to relieve symptoms of arthritis by controlling levels of free radicals. Current findings are considered preliminary, and further research is needed before selenium supplements can be recommended for individuals with arthritis.

    Office Of Dietary Supplements


    Promote healing of cold sores and shingles.

    When the herpes virus erupts from a dormant state in the body, painful cold sores and shingles may appear. Selenium, an immune-system booster, may help suppress this kind of eruption. Interestingly, findings published in Agriculture Research indicate that mice with low levels of selenium or Vitamin E were particularly prone to herpes virus outbreaks.


    Chromium - 300mcg

    Reduction In Serum Total Cholesterol
    Normalizes Blood Sugar

    Chromium (krô'mç-əm)

    What Is It?

    Chromium is an essential trace Mineral that the body needs to grow properly and remain healthy. It is necessary, among other things, for the breakdown of Protein , Fat , and carbohydrates.


    Health Benefits


    Impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Chromium is now generally recognized to play an important role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Chromium supplementation has the effect of normalizing blood sugar levels. Elevated blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, responds positively to chromium supplementation. Hyperglycemic patients given chromium after receiving a dose of glucose, or simple sugar, experienced a drop in blood sugar levels, while patients with low blood sugar, or hypoglycemia, experienced a normalization of their blood sugar levels after receiving chromium .

    Chromium is believed to form an integral component of so-called glucose tolerance factor, a proposed metal-protein complex sometimes referred to as chromodulin. It is responsible for activating insulin receptor kinase, thereby increasing insulin sensitivity. High blood sugar is a damaging hallmark of diabetes. When cell membranes are sensitive to the presence of insulin, they are more receptive to insulin's efforts to usher glucose molecules out of the bloodstream and into cells, where glucose is then burned for energy.

    Without adequate chromium , insulin evidently becomes ineffectual. As glucose piles up in the bloodstream, the pancreas produces ever-greater amounts of insulin, to little avail. In essence, chromium acts like a kind of doorman. While insulin escorts glucose to “doors” in the cell membrane, chromium (probably joined with protein fragments) rings the doorbell, and perhaps holds the door open by activating receptors, while insulin ushers its precious cargo into the cell. Without chromium's help, membrane portals simply fail to open. Blood sugar levels remain stable when adequate chromium is present.

    Dr. Anderson is a nutritional research scientist with the US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service. For decades, he has studied chromium's role in glucose and lipid metabolism. As early as 1981, Dr. Anderson published a report declaring that chromium is essential for proper glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, in 1986, Dr. Anderson noted, “The dietary chromium intake of most individuals is considerably less than the suggested safe and adequate intake.” He went on to note that our rampant consumption of refined sugar further depletes chromium stores. As sugar intake increases, more chromium is expended by the body in an effort to metabolize that sugar, resulting in a spiraling need for still more chromium .

    Life Extension


    In people with type 2 diabetes, the pancreas secretes plenty of insulin in an effort to regulate blood sugar levels, but the body's cells don't respond to it. Researchers have found that a molecule called ''glucose tolerance factor'' (GTF) is critical for increasing the sensitivity of these cells to insulin. And GTF contains chromium.

    If GTF does indeed increase insulin sensitivity, chromium supplements may have a role to play in normalizing blood sugar levels. Several double-blind clinical trials have borne this out. Some studies have even found that chromium supplements enable certain people with diabetes to decrease their dosage of diabetes medications. Taking the chromium with vitamin B3 (niacin) may enhance the chromium's effects.

    And although not yet confirmed in clinical trials, chromium supplements may have a role to play in preventing excessive blood sugar drops in people without diabetes. Symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), including headaches, fatigue, and irritability, may be less likely to occur as a result.


    Positive Effects on Cholesterol, Fat Loss

    No less an authority that Dr. Richard Atkins, the founding father of the current low-carb revolution, called chromium “the most pivotal nutrient involved in sugar metabolism.” Dr. Atkins went on to point out “more than 90% of all Americans are deficient . . .” Besides normalizing glucose and insulin levels, supplemental chromium evidently lowers harmful total cholesterol and triglycerides, while raising beneficial HDL cholesterol. There is even evidence to suggest that chromium promotes fat loss and lean muscle mass retention.

    Some notable studies have indicated an improvement in the ratio of body fat to lean muscle during and after chromium supplementation in humans. Dr. Anderson writes, “[ Chromium ] supplementation may be useful to direct . . . fat loss with the retention of lean body mass and to ameliorate many manifestations of aging.”

    In an interview with Life Extension, Dr. Anderson scoffed at researchers who claim to have found no such effect. “Some of these studies are too short term to see any effect . . . they're poorly done studies,” says Dr. Anderson. He notes that a recent report, which analyzed all the available data on the issue of fat loss and lean muscle retention, concluded that chromium supplementation had no significant effect. “Insignificant weight losses?” asks Dr. Anderson. “They found a [0.3 to 0.8] kilo-per-month loss. That's about eight pounds per year. In five years that adds up to 40 pounds [of fat loss]. That's not insignificant. To say that's insignificant is bizarre.”

    His incredulity is understandable. In one study of 20 overweight African-American women, research-ers found that “fat loss was significantly greater, and non-fat body mass loss significantly less, with chromium intake.” In this randomized, double-blind study, subjects took either 600 mcg of chromium nicotinate or placebo for two months. Groups were then switched for two months, without their knowledge. Those receiving chromium began taking placebo, and vice versa. All subjects also engaged in a modest diet and exercise regimen throughout the study period.

    Perhaps the most intriguing aspect of this clinical trial was the finding that subjects on chromium lost fat but retained lean muscle, in contrast to those on placebo, who lost fat and muscle. Researchers also noted that during the placebo phase, fat loss was significantly less among women who received placebo first than among those who received chromium first, indicating a carryover effect from chromium supplementation. These women continued to lose proportionally more fat, even during the placebo phase. None of the women experienced significant adverse effects from taking 600 mcg of niacin-bound chromium .

    Dr. Anderson is also skeptical about some scientists' claim that chromium does not affect glucose metabolism. “Those are usually people who haven't done much work in the field,” says Dr. Anderson. Citing one meta-analysis that claimed to find no significant effect, Dr. Anderson pointed to “many problems” with the design of the analysis. “Nobody is going to convince me there aren't any beneficial effects. Many of these are lousy studies; lots of them aren't giving enough [ chromium ]. . . they're too short term, or they use healthy normal subjects. You must have impaired glucose tolerance to see an effect. More than 30 studies have demonstrated an effect.”

    In addition, the number of in-dividuals with impaired glucose tolerance is alarmingly high in the US and abroad, says Dr. Anderson. “People with impaired glucose handling, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes—you're talking about a very high percentage of the population. I'd say 25-35% is a very conservative estimate.” Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a combination of medical conditions characterized by abnormal glucose metabolism, elevated insulin levels, excess weight and abdominal fat distribution, disturbances of normally healthy lipid levels, and high blood pressure—all of which are associated with the subsequent development of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    While diabetes and cardiovascular disease are well-recognized threats to overall health, some researchers believe that elevated blood sugar—even absent these other conditions—contributes directly to aging. By interacting with proteins and nucleic acids, excess glucose molecules wreak havoc with tissue elasticity and normal function. Thus, controlling blood sugar may actually put the brakes on the aging process, and should be an essential component of any life-extension strategy.

    Life Extension

    Zinc - 5mg

    Fight Cold And Flu
    Speed Healing  
    Increases Immune Response


    What Is It?

    Zinc is an essential trace Mineral. Every cell in the body needs this nutrient and hundreds of body processes rely on it, from the immune system and the enzymes that produce DNA to the senses of taste and smell. Although the body does not produce zinc on its own, this mineral is readily available in drinking water and certain foods. Even so, a surprising number of adults fail to get enough of this mineral through their diet. Better food choices and a good multivitamin and mineral supplement can help compensate for such mild deficiencies.

    There's now evidence that supplements may also be useful in providing the extra zinc needed to fight cold and flu symptoms. In addition, zinc has shown promise for speeding the healing of canker sores and sore throat, promoting recovery from skin injuries, reducing tinnitus (ringing in the ears), and controlling acne and eye problems.

    Zinc is believed to promote a strong immune system by, among other things, revitalizing the thymus gland and its production of white blood cells. In addition, autoimmune diseases (chronic ailments linked to the improper functioning of the immune system, such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or fibromyalgia) may also benefit from zinc supplementation.

    Interestingly, the presence of too little zinc has been linked to a decreased immune response in older people. Again, supplemental zinc may be a viable remedy. In a study of 118 relatively healthy but elderly nursing home residents in Italy, researchers found that those given 25 mg of zinc daily for three months developed stronger immune systems.

    By boosting the immune system, zinc may also protect against fungal infections and various infectious disorders, such as conjunctivitis and pneumonia. It also has anti-inflammatory properties.



    Health Benefits

    Zinc, infections, and wound healing

    The immune system is adversely affected by even moderate degrees of zinc deficiency. Severe zinc deficiency depresses immune function. Zinc is required for the development and activation of T-lymphocytes, a kind of white blood cell that helps fight infection. When zinc supplements are given to individuals with low zinc levels, the numbers of T-cell lymphocytes circulating in the blood increase and the ability of lymphocytes to fight infection improves. Studies show that poor, malnourished children in India, Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia experience shorter courses of infectious diarrhea after taking zinc supplements. Amounts of zinc provided in these studies ranged from 4 mg a day up to 40 mg per day and were provided in a variety of forms (zinc acetate, zinc gluconate, or zinc sulfate). Zinc supplements are often given to help heal skin ulcers or bed sores, but they do not increase rates of wound healing when zinc levels are normal.

    Office of Dietary Supplements


    The Need For Zinc

    Lack of zinc may lead to poor night vision and wound-healing, a decrease in sense of taste and smell, a reduced ability to fight infections, and poor development of reproductive organs.

    Some conditions may increase your need for zinc. These include:

    * Acrodermatitis enteropathica (a lack of absorption of zinc from the intestine)
    * Alcoholism
    * Burns
    * Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    * Down's syndrome
    * Eating disorders
    * Intestine diseases
    * Infections (continuing or chronic)
    * Kidney disease
    * Liver disease
    * Pancreas disease
    * Sickle cell disease
    * Skin disorders
    * Stomach removal
    * Stress (continuing)
    * Thalassemia
    * Trauma (prolonged)


    Copper - 330mcg

    Help Prevent Heart Disease
    Eliminate Free Radicals
    Encourage bone health and prevent osteoporosis


    What Is It?

    Copper is the third most abundant trace Mineral in the human body. Most Americans readily identify it as the dark reddish, malleable metal used in cookware and plumbing. Numerous foods contain copper, although the particularly rich sources such as liver and oysters are not commonly consumed. In fact, most Americans get too little of this important nutrient.

    An essential component of numerous enzymes and proteins, copper helps the body function normally. It's necessary for the formation of one of the apparent superpower antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD). It's also critical for the creation of Collagen, a core Protein found in bones, connective tissues, and skin. And it is believed to help in the proper storage, use, and release of iron so critical to the formation of Hemoglobin in red blood cells.


    Health Benefits

    Prevent heart disease

    Copper may play a role in staving off heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias) and high blood pressure, research indicates. With adequate stores of copper in your system, cholesterol levels also have a better chance of remaining low. And through its apparent Antioxidant actions-its ability to protect against damage from Free radicals-copper may also help to prevent heart disease.


    Elimination of Free Radicals

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a copper-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the removal of superoxide radicals from the body. Superoxide radicals are generated during normal metabolism, as well as when white blood cells attack invading bacteria and viruses (a process called phagocytosis). If not eliminated quickly, superoxide radicals cause damage to cell membranes. When copper is not present in sufficient quantities, the activity of superoxide dismutase is diminished, and the damage to cell membranes caused by superoxide radicals is increased. When functioning in this enzyme, copper works together with the mineral zinc, and it is actually the ratio of copper to zinc, rather than the absolute amount of copper or zinc alone, that helps the enzyme function properly.



    Encourage bone health and prevent osteoporosis

    Through its role in maintaining collagen integrity, copper may minimize loss in mineral bone density over time, a development that can lead to osteoporosis. A study demonstrating this property found that women taking a daily 3 mg supplement experienced no apparent loss in mineral bone density, while the women given a Placebo had significant loss of bone density. All of the participants, women between the ages of 45 and 56, were in good health at study start. Zinc is taken for similar bone-strengthening purposes; results with zinc/copper combinations may take at least six months. Copper may safely be added to a regimen of prescription drugs or estrogen therapy.


    Manganese - 330mcg

    HDL, Epilepsy And Diabeties
    Enzyme activator
    component of metalloenzymes


    What Is It?

    Manganese, a trace mineral that participates in many enzyme systems in the body, was first considered an essential nutrient in 1931. Researchers discovered that experimental animals fed a diet deficient in manganese demonstrated poor growth and impaired reproduction. Manganese is found widely in nature, but occurs only in trace amounts in human tissues. The human body contains a total of 15-20 milligrams of manganese, most of which is located in the bones, with the remainder found in the kidneys, liver, pancreas, pituitary glands, and adrenal glands.

    In the human body, manganese functions as an enzyme activator and as a component of metalloenzymes (an enzyme that contains a metal ion in its structure).


    Health Benefits

    Manganese And Good HDL, Epilepsy And Diabeties

    In humans consuming a manganese-deficient diet, numerous metabolic imbalances and abnormalities occur such bone changes and a reduction of nail and hair growth, as well as a decrease in HDL cholesterol levels-the "good" cholesterol.

    Low manganese levels are also linked to epilepsy. In studies done in the 1960s, rats consuming manganese-deficient diets exhibited epileptic-like brain wave tracings and were more prone to seizures. In humans, epileptics often test low in blood and hair levels of manganese.

    Manganese is an important cofactor in many key enzyme systems, namely those involved with glucose metabolism. In manganese-deficient guinea pigs, many of the animals develop diabetes and furthermore, their offspring suffer extreme pancreatic disorders-or are born without a pancreas. In humans, diabetics have roughly one half the amount of manganese compared to normal individuals. In fact, manganese is sometimes prescribed to diabetics who are not responding as they should to insulin therapy.

    Life Extension Foundation

    Enzyme activator

    Manganese activates the enzymes responsible for the utilization of several key nutrients including biotin, thiamin, ascorbic acid, and choline. It is a catalyst in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, facilitates protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and may also participate in the production of sex hormones and maintaining reproductive health.

    In addition, manganese activates the enzymes known as glycolsyltranserferases and xylosyltransferases, which are important in the formation of bone. It has also been theorized that manganese is involved in the production of the thyroid hormone known as thyroxine and in maintaining the health of nerve tissue.



    A component of metalloenzymes

    Manganese has additional functions as a constituent of the following metalloenzymes:

    * Arginase, the enzyme in the liver responsible for creating urea, a component of urine

    * Glutamine synthetase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glutamine

    * Phosphoenolpyruvate decarboxylase, an enzyme that participates in the metabolism of blood sugar

    * Manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase, an enzyme with antioxidant activity that protects tissues from the damaging effects of free radicals.This enzyme is found exclusively inside the body's mitochondria (oxygen-based energy factories inside most of our cells).


    Boron - 200mcg

    Metabolic Regulator
    Helps with Osteoporosis And Osteoarthritis


    What Is It?

    Boron is a biologically dynamic ultra trace element important in human metabolism.

    The physiological function of boron remains to be elucidated, but studies demonstrate its involvement in several processes, especially macromineral metabolism. Studies show that it is a metabolic regulator and plays an important role in cell membrane function. Recent studies suggest that boron is important for calcium utilization in the body. In human deficiency studies, supplementation with boron improved several parameters including mental alertness, memory, Mineral metabolism, and blood Hemoglobin.



    Health Benefits

    Osteoporosis And Arthritis

    The trace mineral boron is now an interesting nutritional topic in medical literature. Preliminary results indicate this important nutrient may be helpful in maintaining healthy bone and joint function.

    Boron appears to reduce body calcium loss by increasing the beneficial effects of strogen on bone health.

    Boron deficiency may contribute greatly to the high rate of osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms in American women.

    Boron supplementation has been used in the treatment of osteoarthritis in Germany since the mid 1970's. This use was recently evaluated in a small double blind clinical trial and an open trial. In the double blind study of the patients given 6 mg of boron, 71% improved compare to only 10% in the placebo group. In the open trial, boron supplementation produced effective relief in 90% of arthritis patients. The preliminary indication is that boron supplements are valuable in arthritis, and many people with osteoarthritis experience complete resolution.

    Individuals at risk for osteoporosis should supplement with 3-9 mg of boron daily.

    Encyclopedia of Nutritional Supplements. 1996


    A clinical trial involved 20 patients with radiographically confirmed osteoarthritis. This was a double blind, placebo-controlled study in which half of the subjects were given 6mg of boron daily while the other half received the placebo. The subjects were evaluated three times - prior to taking the tablets, after three weeks on the tablets and after eight weeks on the tablets. Patients were graded with respect to their symptoms as well as their use of a permitted analgesic. At the end of the eight-week period, 50% of those taking boron showed improvement, while only 10% of those on placebo showed similar improvement. The finding was declared statistically significant.

    PDR (Physicians Desk Reference -2001)

    Molybdenum - 4mcg

    Good For Maintaining Oral Hygiene
    Necessary For The Detoxification Of Alcohol And Sulfur


    What Is It?

    Molybdenum is a trace mineral that your body uses in small amounts, mostly as a component of three enzymes your body needs to metabolize certain amino acids, produce uric acid and help to break down drugs and toxins.


    Health Benefits

    Good For Maintaining Oral Hygiene

    Molybdenum is important to many enzyme functions and is a coenzyme in several enzymes, including those necessary for the detoxification of alcohol and sulfur, not to mention the enzymes necessary for the formation of uric acid . Molybdenum may be used to help prevent cancer as well as dental caries. Low levels of molybdenum can lead to an allergic reaction to sulfites. Sulfites are very common in the average diet and most people consume between 2 or 3 mg daily; beer and wine drinkers consume up to 10 mg daily.

    In those geographical areas where molybdenum intake is high, there is also a lowered incidence of tooth decay. Molybdenum is a powerful tool for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. Molybdenum does not appear to interact negatively with any other nutrients or drugs and is very non-toxic unless taken in doses exceeding 100 mg per kilogram of body weight. That equals an astonishing 7000 mg per 154 pound person! Only Trace Minerals contains 250 mcg of molybdenum.

    Life Extension Foundation

    Trimethylglycine (Betaine) - 500mg

    Lowers Homocysteine

    Trimethylglycine (Betaine)

    What Is It?

    Betaine is a nutrient that plays an important role in the health of the cardiovascular system. Studies have suggested that betaine, along with other nutrients, helps to reduce potentially toxic levels of homocysteine (Hcy), a naturally occurring amino acid that can be harmful to blood vessels thereby contributing to the development of heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease (reduced blood flow to the legs and feet)

    University of Maryland Medical Center

    Health Benefits

    Lowers Homocysteine

    Also commonly known as betaine, TMG is a constituent of food. The average American ingests 500–2000 mg of TMG a day.

    TMG is the most effective nutritional agent for suppressing the after-meal surge in homocysteine, slashing levels up to 50%. We commonly use 2000 mg per day as a starting dose for fasting homocysteine levels that do not fully respond to the three B vitamins, using higher doses for the after-meal surge seen with methionine loading. Spinach and wheat germ are two particularly rich food sources of TMG. Be aware that the 6000-mg dose of TMG has been found to raise LDL by around 10%, and LDL should therefore be monitored when using this high dose of TMG.


    Life Extension Foundation

    Protease (from Bromelain) - 12gdu

    Digestion of Proteins

    Protease (from Bromelain)

    What Is It?

    Bromelain is a mixture of enzymes found naturally in the juice and stems of pineapples. Called a proteolytic enzyme, bromelain is believed to help with the digestion of protein.


    Health Benefits


    Bromelain is a popular natural digestive aid due to it's ability to digest proteins. It's used for bloating, gas and other digestive symptoms and for conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome. Bromelain is often used alone or in combination with other enzymes such as lipase, which digests fats, and amylase, which digests starch. There is little research, however, on the safety or effectiveness of bromelain for digestion.


    Bromelain may help with mild pain associated with osteoarthritis. It's a common ingredient in nutritional supplements marketed as a natural pain remedy for arthritis. Large, well-designed studies are needed to see if it is effective and to find out about possible side effects.


    Cellulase - 99cu

    help maintain healthy blood sugars


    What Is It?

    When we eat plants, we take in a large amount of plant cells surrounded by a fibrous complex called a cell wall. A major component of this cell wall is cellulose. Humans do not manufacture the cellulase enzyme needed to digest this type of fiber and must rely on fermentation by the flora in the large intestine.

    This process allows us to break down a small portion of these plant fibers, but the rest act as bulking agents that are eliminated in the stool. Of course some creatures are much more efficient than we are at this type of cellulose digestion: the cow, for example, has a ruminary stomach that is divided into four chambers and can hold massive amounts of cellulose-digesting microbes to break down the grass and hay that make up such a large part of its diet. This is why they can get big and strong from eating grass.

    Similarly, if we eat lots of juicy, healthy greens, sprouts and herbs, we want to make sure that we can digest them by having enough cellulase available. It would be a shame to waste the money we spend on fresh fruits and veggies.

    Cellulase is produced naturally by different symbiotic fungi, protozoa, and bacteria that have the ability to catalyse cellulolysis (the breakdown of cellulose). In reality there are different types of cellulases whose activity is pH-dependent: some are more active in an alkaline environment while others are more active in an acidic or neutral one.

    Cellulase breaks down cellulose into beta-glucose. But what exactly is cellulose? It is a carbohydrate and a key part of the outer cellular structure of vascular plants. It could be considered one of the most abundant compounds in the world, as it is the basic building block for much of the plant kingdom, and is a primary food for much of the world’s living organisms.


    Health Benefits

    I mentioned that cellulase turns cellulose into beta-glucose. This is important to understand when speaking about blood sugar in the human body. Glucose, or blood sugar, is the body’s key source of energy. It can be a problem, though, when we eat simple sugars that quickly elevate our blood sugar levels because the excess is converted into triglycerides and stored as body fat.

    Glucose from cellulose is released slowly and should not dramatically increase blood sugar but rather provide a more stable fuel for the body. In addition, the fiber that is not digested by the cellulase can also slow down or decrease the asbsorption of fats including cholesterol.

    Cellulase enzymes may also help us by:

    • Aiding in the hydrolysis of cellulose into energy-sustaining blood sugar that may help maintain optimal blood sugar levels
    • Helps keep cholesterol in the blood stream at optimal levels
    • Supporting cell membranes to keep them healthy from free radicals, toxic chemicals, and other entities that are harmful to cell membranes.
    • Aid in mediation of biofilm formation from cellulose produced by many types of pathogens.
    • Breaking down the polysaccharides of microbial biofilms.

    In vitro studies show that the cellulase enzymes can stop the growth and increase the breakdown of biofilms produced by the bacteria Pseudomonas. This helps detoxify the intestinal tract, as well as the body’s major organ systems.

    One study of nursing home patients taking a multi-enzyme formula containing cellulase found that they favorably increased markers of protein absorption. This indicates an improvement in digestion of a nutritional formula also given to the study participants which would lead to an overall better nutritional status. Other tests also indicated an improvement in immune function for the patients. What is more, when the enzyme supplement was withdrawn, the positive benefits ended.


    Amylase - 2772 skbu

    Digestion of Carbohydrates


    What Is It?

    Carbohydrates are one of the three major food groups needed for proper nutrition. Amylase is the digestive enzyme needed to digest carbohydrates.





    20-25 %



    50-60 %



    20-30 %


    Carbohydrates in food are an important and immediate source of energy for the body. Starch refers to carbohydrates found in plants (grains). Vegetables and fruits are a source of starch and are broken down to sugar or glucose. Carbohydrates are present in at least small quantities in most food, but the chief sources are the sugars and the starches.

    • Sugars include granulated sugar, maple sugar, honey and molasses.
    • Simple sugars are fructose and fruit sugar.
    • Double sugars are sugar cane, sugar beet, maltose or malt sugar, lactose or milk sugar. All ripe fruits and vegetables contain some natural sugars.
    • Starches are present in such foods as rice, wheat and potatoes.

    Carbohydrates may be stored in the body as glycogen for future use. If they are eaten in excessive amounts, however, the body changes them into fats and stores them in that form. If carbohydrates are not properly broken down before they are absorbed, then adverse health consequences may occur.

    The Importance of Amylase

    Amylase refers to a group of enzymes whose catalytic function is to hydrolyze (breakdown) sugar and starch.

    Amylase digests carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into smaller disaccharide units, eventually converting them into monosaccharides such as glucose. People who are fat intolerant (can't digest fats) often eat sugar and carbohydrates to make up for the lack of fat in their diet. If their diet is excessive in carbohydrates, they may develop an amylase deficiency.

    Amylase digests not only carbohydrates but also dead white blood cells (pus). For example, when you are low in amylase you are a candidate for abscesses (inflamed areas with pus but not bacteria). If you have a toothache and are being treated with antibiotics, but it doesn't go away, chances are you have an abscess.

    Amylase is involved in anti-inflammatory reactions such as those caused by the release of histamine and similar substances. The inflammatory response usually occurs in organs which are in contact with the outside world, i.e., the lungs and skin. These include skin problems such as psoriasis, eczema, hives, insect bites, allergic bee and bug stings, atopic dermatitis, and all types of herpes. Some lung problems including asthma and emphysema may require amylase plus other enzyme formulas depending on the particular condition.


    Lactase - 200 alu

    Digestion of Dairy


    What Is It?

    Lactase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes milk sugar (lactose) into its component parts, glucose and galactose, and assists in the digestion dairy products such as, ice cream, milk and cheese. Nutritionists estimate that 10-20% of the U.S. population is lactose intolerant, meaning they have an inability to break down lactose in many of the dairy products they eat.

    Some ethnic groups have much higher levels of lactose intolerance. For example, research suggests that up to 75% of all African-Americans and Native Americans, and 90% of Asian-Americans experience at least some difficulty digesting milk sugar. But these are not the only people who may be susceptible to an imbalance of lactase in the gut. Certain digestive diseases and even minor injuries to the intestines can alter our enzyme balance.

    The body naturally produces the lactase enzyme in the brush boreder of our small intestines, unless we are lactose intolerant. Lactase production is particularly high when we are infants because lactose accounts for roughly 40% of the total calorie content of breast milk.


    Health Benefits

    The use of lactase as a supplemental agent to help people properly digest lactose has long been confirmed by the scientific community. Here are some of the great health benefits and studies that support the benefits of enzymes such as lactase:

    Lactose Intolerance
    Whereas animal-based lactase has been used for many years by people with lactose intolerance, increasing research on plant-based lactase offers some exciting evidence that it can offer just as many health benefits. A recent review published in the 2008 “Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic found lactase to be an effective support for digestive imbalances.

    Reduction in gas and bloating
    Clinical research examining the health benefits of lactase has found that it may offer prevention and reduction of flatulence in human beings. Placebo-based studies show that preparations of microbial lactase can significantly lower belching, hydrogen production, bloating and other symptoms of flatulence in individuals with a reduced lactase count in the gut.

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome
    The aforementioned research suggests that similar enzymes may play a role in the reduction of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This further leads us to the conclusion that supplementing with a lactase enzyme may help the estimated 1-in-5 Americans who have irritable bowel syndrome.

    Digestive upset in children with autism
    Studies also show a correlation between chronic diarrhea, children with autism spectrum disorder and lowered amounts of intestinal disaccharidase activity (i.e. presence of important digestive enzymes such as lactase, sucrase, and maltase.)

    Inflammation in the digestive tract
    Studies suggest that a reduced amount of intestinal lactase enzyme activity may contribute to diarrhea, infection, mucosal presence and other inflammatory responses in the gut. Supplementing with lactase may ease inflammatory responses such as indigestion, loose stools and sinus inflammation. To avoid these issues, supplementing with lactase may be an excellent idea.

    Prevention of digestive upset associated with congenital digestive conditions
    Scientists are now understanding the link between genetics and the digestive system. Some children and infants have chronic diarrhea, as well as cramping and abdominal distension. Studies show that the use of fungal-derived lactase in human studies have shown significant clinical improvements in children with these extremely challenging digestive conditions. This research further suggests a clear link between the use of carbohydrase enzymes like lactase as a useful aid for correcting digestive upset associated with enzyme deficiencies.



    Lipase - 381 fip

    Digestion of Fats


    What Is It?

    Lipase is an essential enzyme for the digestion of fatty (lipid) substances either in the diet or as a part of normal human metabolism. It is responsible for breaking down (hydrolyzing) fats into smaller components that can readily be absorbed through the intestines.

    This process occurs as lipase acts as catalyst during hydrolysis in which solid fats and oils are disassembled into their components, yielding monoglycerides, diglycerides, glycerol, and free fatty acids.

    Basically this means that it can take a triglyceride molecule, the basic fatty unit found in food, and strip off the fatty acids, leaving either none, one, or two fatty acids attached to the glycerol backbone. This enzyme is produced mainly in the pancreas except in the case of disease and digestive imbalance as discussed below. While excess amounts of poor quality fat in the diet can be a precursor to health conditions like heart disease, diabetes and cancer, we do need some good forms of fat for the functioning of every cell and organ system in the body.

    In fact, all of our cells are actually using lipids (fats) to create their structure and protection. And so, just as we must concern ourselves with getting proper amounts of healthy fats, we must also make sure that we have the good pancreatic enzymes that can absorb this fat along with many fat-soluble nutrients including vitamins A, D, E, and K. This is the role of lipase. And, without this enzyme, we are left with some of the typical types of digestive upset such as indigestion and heart burn.

    Lipase not only helps us break down fat, preventing excess weight gain and possibly even obesity, but it also has the ability to streamline the entire digestion process and increase the nutritional value of the natural fats we are getting from good, healthy foods. This is particularly important in light of the fact that many people consume less-than-optimal amounts of essential fatty acids and fat-soluble nutrients, meaning that it is more important than ever to digest and absorb these as efficiently as possible. In addition, the common effects of indigestion, bloating, abdominal discomfort and gas resulting from eating high-fat foods can be greatly alleviated.



    Health Benefits

    Here are some of the great health benefits and studies that support the benefits of the lipase enzyme:

    Helps keep pancreatic enzymes at optimal levels as we age
    Research from France shows that concentrations of digestive enzymes like lipase are lowered as we age. These studies found that the enzymes lipase, phospholipase and chymotrypsin decreased with age in concentration as well as in output. This is a confirmation that ageing alters pancreatic secretions and supports evidence for lipase supplementation.

    May improve symptoms of Celiac disease
    Celiac disease is a fairly common digestive condition in which we cannot digest the proteins found in gluten Pancreatic enzymes such as lipase have been studied as a potential aid for this disease. One study done on children with celiac disease found that supplemental lipase helped them better gain weight and keep nutrients in the body.

    May improve common symptoms of indigestion
    According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, one clinical study found that supplementing with lipase and other enzymes reduced the overall symptoms of indigestion including the sensation of being overly full, flatulence and bloating following a meal of high-fat food. As these are the symptoms typically connected to irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), scientists believe that the lipase enzyme may also help this condition.

    May improve overall nutritional status for those with cystic fibrosis
    This condition causes the digestive system to produce excess mucus, and creates nutritional lack due to mucus stopping the pancreatic enzymes from reaching the intestines. Many doctors report that supplementing with enzymes such as lipase can help reduce symptoms, and most importantly, help people get the nutritional components from the food they are eating.

    Helps boost immune function
    By increasing enzyme secretions, we may experience an overall boost to our immune function. One double-blind, placebo-controlled human trial found that lipase enzyme supplements, when taken with meals, could help reduce symptoms of digestive upset in hospital patients. After eight weeks of use, gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly improved in the patients taking lipase. This study confirmed a clear reduction in abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, nausea, heartburn, gas, and loss of appetite.

    Boosts absorption of vitamins and minerals from the food we eat
    Research shows that the lipase enzyme can help us avoid something known as excessive fecal fat loss (steatorrhea). This occurs when we are not breaking down fats and extracting the vital nutrients we are taking in. Absorption is impaired, leading us to crave more and more fats, and may eventually actually promote weight gain. With good lipase levels in the body, fat-soluble nutrients like essential fatty acids can be digested and used in the body. Similarly, lipase helps us better biosynthesize the vitamins A, D, E and K.

    Aids in fat digestion and weight control
    Studies confirm that the lipase enzyme can drastically increase our ability to digest fat. A study on pancreatic enzyme supplementation found that large doses of lipase helped stabilize fat digestion in up to 63% of people suffering from pancreatic diseases. Another animal study found that lipase also helped reverse some forms of pancreatic disease in dogs. Another human trial using fungal-derived lipase also showed how the use of lipase helped reduce fecal fat and bettered fat absorption in people with cystic fibrosis. A recent review of lipase therapy showed that lipase supplementation could help reduce lipid malabsorption and restore fat digestion to optimal levels.



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